One hundred places to see in Iran

Iranian UNESCO World Heritage Site

Part C

 

Collection of Iranian Armenian monastic works

Ways of access: 1- The Church of St. Thaddeus (Qarah-e-Kelisa) is located in northwestern Iran in the province of West Azerbaijan in the area of ​​Chaldoran city and in the village of Qarah-e-Kelisa in 20 km northeast of Siah Cheshmeh and 7 km north of Chaldoran-Qarah Zia-ud-Din road; It is also located in the south of Mako. 2. St. Stephen’s Church is located in East Azarbaijan province, 17 km west of Julfa and 3 km from the shore of the Red Monastery. 3- Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Zorzur, West Azerbaijan Province, (Ghezel Vanak), south of the Aras River, in a place called Mako city, 12 km northwest of Qarah Kelisa, near Barun village, at the mouth of the valley where the Zangi Mar river flows. Qara Church: This church was called Surp Thaddeus Vank in Armenian, meaning the Holy Church of Thaddeus. St. Thaddeus is one of the apostles of Christ

Who came to the southern region of the Armenian plateau to preach Christianity. In 66 AD, St. Thaddeus, along with San Dukht, the king’s daughter, and several other Christian believers, were arrested by order of the then king of Armenia and tortured to death, and St. Thaddeus was buried in the present location of Deir ez-Zor. . Its original construction dates back to the early fourth century and has been one of the most important Armenian shrines since the beginning. The architectural details of this church, built by Gregor Roshangar, are not known, the word is Qara Turki and means black. Historians of the eighth century AH onwards are sometimes called. Every year in the last days of July and the first week of August), which coincides with the murder of St. Thaddeus and his Christian followers, the Iranian and a number of ambassadors of Christian countries hold special ceremonies at St. Thaddeus Church. It was rebuilt here in 644 or 645 AH. The decree of Shah Abbas I, Safavid, in support of the Armenians can be seen on its entrance. Abbas Mirza, Crown Prince of Fatah Ali Shah, has also added decorations to it. This church was nationally registered on February 1, 1958 under No. 405 and also on July 8, 2008. On July 7, 2008, during the thirty-second session, the Church of St. Thaddeus, the Church of St. Stephen and the Church of Zor Zour were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List as the ninth Iranian monument.

St. Stephen’s Church: This name is derived from the name of Stephen, the first martyr of the Christian path, and in most countries of the world there are several churches with the same name. It is also known as Kharaba Church due to its deserted location. They know that the architectural style of the building, the building materials and its detailed and beautiful decorations confirm that the church was built in the same and at the same time as churches such as Qara-e-Kelisa between the fourth to the sixth century AH (tenth to twelfth AD) and its architectural style is integrated. It is one of the different architectural styles of Urartu, Parthian and Roman. Which is after the church in terms of importance. This church was seriously damaged due to the earthquake, which was repaired and rebuilt during the Safavid period. This work was registered as one of the national works of Iran on March 6, 1972 with the registration number 429. This church is revered by all Christians and more or less all religions, but in fact it belongs to the Armenian Apostolic Church. On one day of the year, thousands of Armenians gather here to perform their special rituals and ceremonies during the pilgrimage.

Estimated in 1342 AD and by the Archbishop of the Church of St. Thaddeus, to – the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary Zour Zour: The history of the building of Zour Zour between the years 1315 of the great family and the owners of the area, and built as a school of religious, cultural and literary education. Bishop Hovhannes Yerznaghatsi was called “Zakaria”; He was a resident of this church in 1341, and for this reason he is also called Zortsi. This cruciform church, like other Armenian churches built in those days, is made of carved stones in different volumes. The facade of the church is very simple and only around the windows and skylights with false columns that end in a truncated arch. In 1987, the Ministry of Energy started the construction of the Baron Dam. The church was located at the same point where the retaining wall of the dam was to be erected, and according to the approved plans, after its completion and the catchment of the lake, the church would sink in the dam lake. On the other hand, the excavation of diversion tunnels and a series of construction explosions had caused a lot of damage to the rest of the church building. For this reason, the executive management of the Cultural Heritage Organization, with the consent of the Ministry of Energy and cooperation of companies (Mahab Ghods and Peymab) and the Regional Water and Electricity Organization, as well as experts of the Cultural Heritage Organization and with the cooperation of specialists and architects of the Republic of Armenia for 25 days , Observing scientific points, stone by stone, layers of porcelain wall, numbered, walk to another place with a height of about 110 meters 600 meters from that point, it was moved and rebuilt on a rocky ridge. The best time to travel is the non-cold seasons of the year. _

 

Shushtar water structures

Access roads: Khuzestan, the center of Shushtar

Shushtar historical water system, also called Shushtar historical water structures, is an interconnected collection of 13 historical monuments including bridges, dams, mills, waterfalls, slow canals and huge water conduction tunnels within the city of Shushtar. They are located and built as the historical water system of Shushtar during the Achaemenid to Sassanid eras, to make more use of water and have been registered as the tenth Iranian work in the UNESCO World Heritage List with the number 1315. The construction of this water supply system and its proper use about 1700 years ago is so amazing that even today, despite the serious damage to the building, it is one of the most important parts of Shushtar and Iran. The operation of this large water system starts from Gargar Dam. Water collects from the diversion route behind Gargar Dam. At the top of the dam, at a perfectly calculated height, water comes out of three large holes. As a result, whenever water rose above a certain level, these three holes helped to drain it. You should also know that the size of these three cavities are different and have different discharges. In the path of water flow, there are water mills to get the most out of water power. After that, the water falls in a cascade on a large pond. Spring is the best time to travel here. The most important parts of this water engineering structure are as follows:

1- Waterfalls and water mills are the largest and most visited part of Shushtar historical water system (Shushtar historical water structures). There is a significant number of water mills in this ancient complex and a complete and large example of using water power to rotate the mills can be seen in it.

2 – Salasel Fortress was a very large fortress, including numerous courtyards, barracks, stables, baths, naves, towers, gardens, barns, tin houses, shrine, kitchen, large pools, fences and ditches. This fort was the control center of Nahr Daryoun and also the residence of the governor of Khuzestan.

3. Lashkar Bridge or Lashkar Gate and Shah Ali Bridge is one of the six historical gates of Shushtar and traces of Shushtar fence can still be seen next to this bridge.

4. Shadruvan Shushtar Bridge or Qaysar Dam belongs to the Sassanid era. According to Eastern narrations, Shapur I, the Sassanid emperor, after the capture of Valerian by the Roman emperor, forced him to work on the construction of Bandoshushtar bridge. In his Shahnameh, Ferdowsi has quoted verses describing the construction of Shadruvan bridge.

5. Mizan Dam is a very important work in the collection of historical water monuments of Shushtar, which divides the Karun River into two branches, Shatit and Gargar, with a specific ratio of 4 dungeons and 2 dungeons. This paragraph has been registered in the list of national monuments with number 2331.

6- The remains of an octagonal tower are located next to the Shatit River, which was built on a short hill overlooking the Mizan Dam. The people of Shushtar call this building a pergola and say that it was used based on the amount and intensity of the river flow and the supervision of workers’ work and supervision.

7. Gargar creek is an artificial (handmade) branch of Karun river that was dug in the Achaemenid to Sassanid period and in the north of Shushtar city is separated from Karun river by Mizan dam and takes the south road. This creek has been registered in the list of national monuments with the number 17599.

8. Dariun creek was dug during the reign of Darius I of the Achaemenid dynasty and had the task of irrigating the Mianab plain of Shushtar. This creek has been registered in the list of national monuments with the number 4141.

9- Sharabdar dam is located in Shrabdar area (fuel committee) of Shushtar and on a branch of Daryoun creek called Raqat creek in east-west direction. This structure is located between two important water structures of Lashkar Bridge and Mahi Bazan Bridge and has been registered in the list of national monuments with the number 4218.

10. Fishermen’s dam has been built in the lands of the historical city of Dastva in order to keep the water level high This paragraph has been registered in the list of national monuments with the number 4207.

11 – Dokhtar dam is built in the last mountain gorge through which Karun river crosses.

12 – Dara Dam was built in Mianab region and on Gargar river and belongs to Achaemenid period..

 

Tabriz market

Access roads: Most of the market area in the south of Chai Square is located at the distance of Daraei, Shohada, Ferdowsi, Shahid Motahari (Alley) Chai Kenar and Jomhuri Eslami streets. The construction of Daraei, Khaghani, North Army, Ferdowsi, Shohada and Jomhuri Eslami streets has destroyed part of the bazaar and separated part of the bazaar from the entire southern complex.

Tabriz Bazaar is the largest and most important indoor market in the world, which is located in the city of Tabriz in Iran. With an area of ​​about one square kilometer, this market is the largest indoor market in the world. Tabriz Bazaar has been registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List in August 2010. This market consists of several bazaars, corridors, Timchehs and numerous caravanserais. Previously, due to the location of the city of Tabriz at the crossroads of the Silk Road and the daily passage of thousands of caravans from different Asian, African and European countries, this city and its market have enjoyed a very prosperous. This bazaar was rebuilt about 3 centuries ago and after the occurrence of the historical earthquake in Tabriz in 1193 AH by Najafgholi Khan Danbali, the ruler of Tabriz at the time. Tabriz Bazaar has been registered in the list of national monuments of Iran in 1975. The date of construction of this complex is not known; But many world travelers who have visited this market from the fourth century AH to the Qajar period have provided information about it. Many tourists such as Ibn Battuta, Marco Polo, Jackson, Chalabi’s parents, Yaqut Hamavi, Gaspar Drewville, Alexis Soktikoff, Jean Chardin, Eugene Flandin, John Cart Wright, Jamli Cardi, Clavijo, Robert Grant Watson, and Hamdallah Mastallah The prosperity and glory of Tabriz Bazaar have praised this market by having approx

5,500 rooms, shops and stores, 40 types of jobs, 35 houses, 25 Timcheh houses, 30 mosques, 20 bazaars, 11 corridors, 5 baths and 12 schools, as the main center. The trade of the people of Tabriz and Iran is well known. In 2010, this complex collapsed with the registration number 1346 as 98 parts of this market / 2 / One of the world heritage sites of Iran was registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List. However, with a massive fire on the 19th and more than 100 shops It burned in the devastating flames. It left 29 people injured, and so far it has been unintentional. It happened again after ten years. Most of Timcheh and Sarai Bazaar have three floors, the lower floor is for warehouses, the second floor is for business and work and the third floor is designed for rest and comfort. The main orders are connected by sub-orders and Timchehs and houses are built in the spaces between them. The intersection of the rows in the three-way and four-way is covered by dome brick arches, the largest dome of the bazaar is Timcheh Amir dome and the most beautiful type of architecture is Timcheh Mozaffariyeh. Amir Bazaar, Timcheh and Caravanserai, which is the most important and valuable part of Tabriz Bazaar and is currently the main centers of trade and export of carpets and handicrafts and the center of gold, jewelry and textiles, by Mirza Mohammad Khan Amir Nezam Zanganeh in 1255 AH It has been built. Timcheh Mozaffariyeh, which is the most famous part of Tabriz Bazaar, was crowned

Mozaffaruddin Mirzai Qajar was built in 1305 AH and its founder is Haj Sheikh Mohammad Jafar Qazvini, one of the famous and great merchants of Tabriz. Now this Timcheh is one of the major centers of trade and export of carpets of Azerbaijan and Iran all over the world and has world fame. Most of the markets of Tabriz are famous for the production or supply and sale of special goods or goods, which can be found in the greenhouse glass market for the production and sale of glass and crystal, the shoemakers’ market, the center for the production of handmade shoes, copper market, halajan, hatter, Ayneh Sazan, Sarajan, Zargaran, Attaran, Abachi, Bazaar for Abba production, Sharabafan Bazaar for trade and silk trade, Sugar seller Special market for importing sugar from ancient Russia, Almonds for buying and selling and exporting dried fruits and almonds, Raisins for exporting chillers Raisins and greens outside Iran, Atlaschi Bazaar special trade of various sacks and Talisi, Kaghizchi Bazaar and…

At present, many of these classes and occupations have disappeared and only their names remain on the bazaars and orders of Tabriz Bazaar. Some of these businesses have disappeared or changed their nature over time due to the rise of modern and new goods, and old wholesale and banking have given way to retail. Blacksmithing, blacksmithing, weaving, casting, blacksmithing, saddle, shoemaking, palaeontology, hat-making, blacksmithing, which are completely extinct in the city’s bazaar complex, and only their names remain. In the last decades, the docks around the market have become commercial passages and complexes, and the docks have lost their old use. The Tabriz Bazaar renovation project was awarded as one of the five projects selected by the jury of the Aga Khan Architecture Award in 2013. In the Tabriz Bazaar, about 12 chapters of the science school of the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran became the office of East Azerbaijan. There are prizes for religious and Islamic schools such as Talebieh, Sadeghieh, Jafaria, Akbariyeh, Haj Safar Ali and مدرسه schools, and about 30 historical mosques decorated with multiplicative domes, Mogharnas and stone columns, which can be found in the Grand Mosque (Friday Mosque). , Hojjatoleslam Mosque, Khaleh Oghli Mosque, Dinuri Mosque, Mofid Agha Mosque, Ghezelli Mosque (Mirza Yousef Agha), Tomb Mosque, Mujtahid Mosque, Haftad Soton Mosque, Ayatollah Shahidi Mosque, Rumi Mosque, Dabbagh Khane Mosque, Haj Safar Ali Mosque, Mosque Badkoobei, Ishraqi Mosque, Sadeghieh Mosque and a number of old and historical baths are also available in Tabriz Bazaar. It is possible to visit all year round.

 

Tomb of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardabili

Ways of access: Ardabil city is the high neighborhood of Qapo Safi al-Din Abolfath Ishaq, nicknamed Shams al-Din known as Sheikh Safi Aref, poet and great Safavid dynasty and founder of the Sufi sect in the eighth century. His lineage has been passed on to Imam Musa Kazem through 19 intermediaries. . He was born in the city of Ardabil, in the year 650 AH, and his mother tongue was Azeri. He has written many poems in Turkish in the books of Safwa al-Safa and the genealogy. Sheikh’s father and paternal grandparents were engaged in agriculture in Kalkhoran, Ardabil. Sheikh Safi al-Din chose to marry Fatemeh Khatun, the daughter of Zahid Gilani, and had three sons named Mohi al-Din, Sadr al-Din and Abu Sa’id. Sheikh Safi al-Din was a person who was interested in solitude and seclusion and spent hours in worship, mystery and need. Sheikh’s interest in religious issues led him to establish a monastery in the city of Ardabil and to raise many students and followers. Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardabili went on Hajj in the last year of his life and died at the end of the same year and on his way back in 735 AH at the age of 85. The exquisite collection of the tomb of Sheikh Safi al-Din named after the famous mystic Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardabili, the ancestor of the Safavid sultans, was built in 735 AH by his son Sadr al-Din Musa. After the beginning of Safavid rule, due to the devotion of Safavid kings to their ancestor, different parts were added to this collection. Especially in the period of Shah Abbas I and since he had a lot of devotion to Sheikh Safi al-Din and visited his tomb a lot, a lot of work was done to complete and decorate this work. In the Safavid era, the tomb of Sheikh with the presence of masters The great Safavid era was so adorned that it is still considered as one of the historical and cultural heroes of Iran after several centuries. Sheikh Safi’s house and monastery are located in this place, and according to the sheikh’s will, the body He was buried in a room next to the private house, garden and pool house and a building was built on his grave to place other tombs of Safavid princes and his children in this tomb and place of martyrdom in addition to the tomb of Sheikh Safi and the shrine of Shah Ismail I. In this place, in addition to the tomb of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardabili, the tombs of Shah Ismail I (the first Safavid king) and the mother of Shah Ismail (daughter of Ozun Hassan Aq Quyunlu) as well as some elders and officials of the Safavid era and the Iranian martyrs of Chaldoran war, contract. Other parts of this porcelain complex include house, mosque, paradise, monastery,

Cheleh Khaneh, Martyrdom House and Lamp House; It is a refuge. One of the unique cases of this collection is that this tomb contains dozens of original works in various themes of art disciplines, including the highest type of mosaic and Mogharnas tiling and plastering of beautiful and exquisite inscriptions and calligraphy of great calligraphers. Safavid period (Mir Emad, Mir Ghavam-ud-Din, Mohammad Ismail and 2) mentioned valuable inlays, silverwork, gilding and gilding, painting and narrowing, etc.

This work has a magnificent architectural structure that the combination of the mentioned artistic virtues has made it significant and distinctive in the historical collections of Iran. During the Iran-Russia wars during the Qajar period and the fall of Ardabil, the manuscript of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardabili’s library was looted by the Russians in Ardabil. The manuscripts are now housed in the St. Petersburg Museum in Russia. Among the exquisite objects is the tomb of Sheikh Safi, now housed in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The building is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Although it is covered here, it is recommended to travel to Ardabil during the non-cold seasons .

 

Iranian Garden

Ways of access: These nine gardens are located in different parts of Iran

Persian garden is a garden that based on its architecture and constituent elements such as geometric structure, water and trees and middle pavilion, etc., mainly Pardis or Ferdows, Bustan or Bostan, “Bagh Sara” in the Iranian plateau and surrounding areas are affected. It has been common in its culture. In Iranian literature, it was called the Persian garden. The word Persian garden is new and translated as Persian Garden. The Persian garden has three unique structures and designs: first, it is located in the path of the water atmosphere. Second: it is surrounded by high walls, and third, it is located inside the summer mansion garden and water pool. These three characteristics of Iranian gardens were described as distinct gardens. Persian garden or “Persian Garden”. In fact, the Iranian gardens that European tourists who saw it refer to its unique structure and design with its characteristics and names. The Persian garden is related to the history of the origin of the aqueduct. The first Iranian gardens were formed in the way of the aqueduct exit. Is. Examples of such gardens can be seen in Tabas, Yazd, Gonabad, and Birjand and most desert areas. One of the characteristics of the Persian garden is the passage of water through the garden, which usually had a swimming pool in the middle of the garden and a mansion or summer building. Some gardens were in the form of four gardens and water flowed in 4 directions. The Persian garden of Pasargadae is considered to be the root of the architecture of these gardens. Cyrus the Great had personally ordered that

How to create Pasargad garden and how to plant trees and in fact the geometry of the garden and its shape and image has been taken from the perspective of Cyrus to the Persian garden. In the Sassanid period, gardens were formed in front of palaces and temples, and this continued in the Islamic period. The oldest pictorial document depicting the order of the Persian garden dates back to the Sassanid period. In the relief of Taq-e Bostan, the hunting scene of Khosrow Parviz shows his garden-hunting plan in Taq-e Bostan. This relief largely reveals the geometry of the garden and its function. In all cities and villages of Iran, especially in the areas that have aqueducts, there has been an Iranian garden or garden house. Life in the garden and the dream of the garden, which is a view of heaven and paradise, has been and is evident in the lives of all Iranians. The symbol of this Persian garden is the Persian carpet, which can be found in the houses of Iranians at least one of them. Persian carpet is the best embodiment of the garden, after its architectural embodiment in Iranian culture. The garden is the subject of many carpet patterns. The carpet is Iranian. Three unique structures and designs distinguish the Iranian garden from other gardens: 1- It is located in the path of water flow. 2- It is surrounded by high walls. 3- Summer mansion and water pool can be seen in it. Going to these gardens is always attractive and spectacular, especially in spring and spring flowers and blossoms. There are nine Iranian gardens in Iran and two gardens in India and one garden in Pakistan. 2011 are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. These gardens are: Persian Garden of Pasargad Shiraz – Eram Garden of Shiraz – Chehelston Garden of Isfahan – Fin Garden of Kashan – Garden of Abbasabad of Mazandaran – Prince of Kerman Garden – Garden

Dolatabad Yazd- Pahlavanpour Mehriz Garden- Akbariyeh Garden Birjand- Agra Taj Mahal India- Homayoun Tomb New Delhi India- Shalimar Garden Lahore Pakistan

 

Jame Mosque of Isfahan

Access roads: Isfahan, Ghiam Square, Majlisi Street and at the end of the Grand Bazaar

Isfahan Grand Mosque, which is also known as Atiq Grand Mosque and Isfahan Friday Mosque, is one of the historical monuments of Isfahan, which dates back to 156 AH. This mosque should not be confused with the Abbasi Grand Mosque. In 226 AH / 846 AD, by the order of Caliph Mutasim Abbasi, the former mosque was destroyed and a columned building was built with a wooden roof, of which part of the columns and walls still remain.

They distanced themselves and by building four porches on the sides of the “Arab Mosque”, the most important changes of the mosque were made during the Seljuk period; The architects of this period became famous for their pattern. In the month of Rabi-al-Awal in 515 AH, this mosque was created by the “Iranian Mosque” of the north, south, east and west, a new style that was set on fire by the Ismailis, which was restored in later periods. In the following centuries and in the patriarchal, Mozaffari, Timurid, Safavid and Qajar periods, this mosque has also undergone important changes. Isfahan Grand Mosque was originally made of raw clay, but due to the stability of the brick, high construction speed and other factors, brick was used in its reconstruction. Fountain arches, four porches, entrances, brick piers and various decorations that are suitable for the architecture of each period of Iranian history and in Khorasanian (or Arabic) and Razi styles have been used in this mosque, creating a work that is a pattern. For mosques in Iran and even other Muslim areas. The northern side of the mosque consists of Darvish porch, Mozaffari school, Taj al-Molk or earthen dome, Chehelston, nave and various inscriptions left from the Seljuk and Safavid eras. These inscriptions are made using plaster and bricks and are decorated with lines such as Kufi, Salat, Nastaliq and Banai and verses from the Quran. The south side of the mosque is the side where the main buildings are in Arabic style

And was made of raw clay. During the reign of Nizam al-Mulk, with the destruction of the nave, a dome was built in two shells, which left the cracks covered and the dome was shown to be larger. During the reign of Al-Muzaffar, Aq Quyunlu and Safavid, inscriptions were added to this part and the building on the south side was slightly changed. The inscription of Shah Tahmasb on the forgiveness of taxes and his letter of repentance, the inscription of Shah Ismail for issuing a remittance in the name of the people of Isfahan, the inscription of paving and the inscription of the water of the mosque are among the works of this side The western side is made of winter nave, Mosalla Mosque, Al-Jaito Mosque and Altar, inscriptions of Safavid kings and Mohammad Amin Isfahani. Part of the wall on this side is the remaining brick wall built in the eighth century AH. Al-Jaito, Muhammad ibn Baysanghar Teymouri, and Shah Sultan Hussein Safavid were among those who made changes in this area. The newest part of the mosque is the eastern side, which belongs to the Seljuk period. This part was destroyed over time and was rebuilt during the reign of Shah Suleiman the Safavid, and an inscription related to this reconstruction is also located on the east porch. Inscriptions from the time of Hotkian, Al-Muzaffar and Shah Tahmasb Safavid have also remained in this part. Al-Jaito pulpit and altar are located. In the eighth century AH, the Ilkhans began to rebuild various places, and at the same time excellent buildings with a “master porch” in the north.

Plasterers are very skillfully made. Of course, the construction of the second floor of the main facade of the mosque, which is facing the courtyard, was done in the same period and by the order of Oljaito and in a secret way. Al-Jaito Altar is one of these examples, the components of which are combined with precise logic. This altar has a beautiful plaster, plant motifs and geometric motifs, and according to the inscription on the central plate of its upper arch. It was created in 710 AH with the help of Minister Mohammad Savi and under the supervision of Azd bin Ali. To the right of this altar is a pulpit whose year of construction is not mentioned and no information is available about it, but the most beautiful inlaid pulpit in the entire monument was registered on December 6, 1961 with registration number 95 as one of the national monuments of Iran. It came to UNESCO and the directors of Isfahan’s cultural heritage became responsible for this. “Isfahan Grand Mosque” was in 1389 AH, the subject of sending the file, of course, according to Jabal Ameli, efforts have been made in the previous three decades, but due to the size of the building and its lack of continuity, each time the work remains fruitless. Until in January 2010, all UNESCO criteria were met and recorded and sent in a comprehensive file. After that, a museum was created for the works discovered in the mosque and a mock-up for the building. Signs in two languages ​​were placed in the mosque; Base and space to introduce the mosque for acquaintance

Visitors were created and devices for showing and filming were placed in the mosque. In 1390, specialists visited the mosque and after the necessary studies, this building was registered worldwide. It is possible to visit and see during the year.