Get to know the most mysterious caves in Iran

Country Iran among the countries of the world, including places where natural ecosystems Four Seasons is very famous.

In addition to the northern forests, the central desert, the Alborz and Zagros mountains, and the abundant springs and plains, this ecosystem includes caves that are located in different parts of the country, and some of them, like Ali Sadr Cave, are among the wonders of the world.

The beauty of some of these caves attracts the attention of every viewer. Some of them are so mysterious that you want to go step by step to discover more corners of these caves, but there are also scary and dark caves that you are not even willing to go near their mouths, let alone want an exciting day in these caves. Leave behind.
It belongs to adventurers and professionals. Those who want to get excited during the holidays and create exciting and terrifying moments for themselves.Today, the number of non-professional cavers is higher than that of professional cavers. These are the people who pay more attention to the recreational and sports aspects of caving, and it is interesting that most of the caves have been discovered by these non-professional cavers. These enthusiasts are often climbers who are more interested in adventure. It should be noted that caves are not out of reach and scary. Caves are among the wonders of nature. The most important caves that are visited by non-professional cavers or as tourists are: Ali Sadr Cave, Rudafshan; Katalekhor, we have classified the caves in Iran in terms of visitors. This classification will help them plan their trip. The caves of each province along with its degree of difficulty are given in the attractions section of each province.

Caves of the first category:

These caves do not require any technical equipment and most visitors can visit it with the minimum safety considerations. This category includes Ali Sadr Cave ; Part of Qanari cave is Qaleh De Rapahan, Katlekhor in Zanjan and Chal Nakhjir in Markazi province.

Caves of the second category :

are a group of caves that do not require technical skills of caving but are not suitable for children. It is necessary to use a helmet, headlights and appropriate shoes and clothes in such caves. For example, Rud Afshan Cave, Bornik, Moghan in Khorasan.

Caves of the third category :

These are caves in which part of it requires the use of rope or specialized caving equipment, but people do not need to be skilled in using this equipment (but they must enter the cave with guidance familiar with mountaineering techniques to Visitors help in using the equipment. This is a necessary condition to enter all the caves and it does not apply only here) such as Morad Ice Cave on Chalous and Tarang Road in Kerman

Fourth category caves:

These are caves that only trained and experienced cavers with full technical equipment of caves can enter. In this case, we can mention caves such as Prav Kermanshah 700 meters and Sam cave in Semnan 400 meters and Koodchal in Sanghar 215 meters.

Various factors cause the formation and formation of caves. These factors can be chemical processes, water erosion, tectonic forces, microorganisms, pressure, atmospheric influences, human excavations and.. Caves can be categorized from various aspects, which we will briefly discuss below:

1- In terms of the type of environmental stones:

Limestone caves (limestone, dolomite, marble)
caves Lava caves (magmatic)

2- In terms of morphology and geometric structure:

Horizontal caves that contain horizontal tunnels close to each other.
Slitting caves that contain only one slit in a rock or cliff.
Vertical caves that contain wells or wells that are interconnected and close to each other.
Cave systems that have different characteristics due to their size.
Separation of horizontal and vertical caves is only for small caves in which there is a tunnel or a well. In most caves, due to the large space and the number of tunnels and wells, there is a cave system.

3- In terms of time of origin:

Primary caves in the space between the rocks (at the time of their formation) arise, such as tunnels, lava or the caves of tufa (Tufa)
Tufa: sedimentary rocks are the deposition of thin layers of calcium carbonate or less of silica around Salt springs form as a cover around stalactites or stalagmites.
Secondary caves that are formed after the formation of rocks and cliffs and due to garbage factors, most of the caves in the world are considered as secondary caves.
Third class caves that are formed due to the collapse of other caves.

4- In terms of stone life:

This category is used for limestone caves, lime is a sedimentary rock and one of its main characteristics is the time of origin.

New (recent) or tufa limestones found around the world.
Jurassic limestones Jurassic
Devonian limestones are
one of the periods in the second geological period, the length of the Jurassic period is 60 million years.
Devonian is one of the periods in the first geological period, the Devonian period lasted from 408 to 360 million years ago.


5- In terms of formation method:

In most internal sources and references, there is a special category, which we will discuss in this section. In this category, caves are divided into the following two groups:

1- Natural caves
2- Broken caves (hand-made, artificial)

Of course, a third group may be considered, and that group is natural-encroached caves (such as Kerfto Cave). These types of caves are usually of natural origin, which were later excavated and sculpted by humans for various purposes, but due to the fact that these types of caves can be examined separately from the angle of natural and hand-made caves, we will not mention them in detail.


 Morad Ice Cave : The first four-story cave  in Iran

Morad Ice Cave, which is located on the way from Tehran to Chalous and on the same road that we have passed many times, is one of the wonders of Iranian nature. This cave is located next to Chalous road in Gachsar village of Alborz province. This way you can add a new experience to this holiday that is unprecedented when you go on your regular vacation.

Experts believe that Murad Ice Cave, which is one of the most beautiful and rarest caves in the country, has been under water in the past. This can be understood from the natural state of the cave and the remains of the “Cardina” fossil on the boulders of the cave. “The material of this cave is marine mollusks and dates back to the third geological period, ie their lifespan is over 50 million years.”

This cave has many windbreaks and ventilators, and for this reason, the air enters from them strongly and makes the air of the cave extremely cold. This factor causes the water in the cave to freeze, which may not be unrelated to the name given to it.

Of course, as the weather warms up and from the middle of the second month of spring, the ice of this cave begins to melt. In general, this cave has three large halls, three underground glaciers and seven wells, but what is most noticeable about the ice is the part of the cave that has four floors. In the deep part of the cave, which reaches 20 meters, the floors are on top of each other, and we can safely say that no cave with these characteristics has ever been seen in the country.


Kermanshah  Ghori Qaleh Cave, The largest water cave in the Middle Eas

The largest water cave in the Middle East is located in Kermanshah province. The cave dates back to 65 million years ago and is known as Qaleh Qori Cave.

The length of this cave is about 12 km and in some parts its depth reaches 3140 meters. This natural place is one of the seven national monuments that have been registered.

The water pools of this cave are up to 14 meters deep in some places and its temperature is about seven to 11 degrees Celsius.

The temperature of this cave is constant in all seasons of the year, in this cave you can walk in its beautiful halls, the halls which are located at 1400 meters and 1500 meters of this cave and each of the halls has a name. This cave has pools next to each other. It has consistently become one of the largest water caves in the world.

Handmade and amazing Karaftoo cave

The amazing cave of Kerfto was built by the ancient Iranians without the use of electric tools and only with the hand tools of that time. This cave is in fact a collection of ancient human endeavors to have a better, safer life and shelter.

This ancient and historical monument is located on a high cliff 70 km northwest of Divandere city in Kurdistan province.

Karaftoo Cave is a type of limestone and natural caves and was probably formed in the third geological period and later formed by humans.

With human habitation in this cave, incredible changes have been made in it, which has turned it from a natural cave into a handmade cave. These changes include changes such as nested rooms, hallways and hallways, and so on. For this reason, it can be said that Kerfto cave has a special reputation among handmade caves, a cave that has a unique architecture in terms of construction texture and is one of the most mysterious and beautiful caves in Iran.

The height of the entrance of the cave from the top of the hill is about 20 to 25 meters, the cave building dates back to the Parthian period and around the third century BC. When you enter Kerfto, the first thing that catches your attention is the beautiful and special architecture along with the engravings on the boulders.

There is a Greek inscription on the entrance of one of the rooms on the third floor, which has been badly damaged. The inscription says of the goddess Heracles: “This is the house of Heracles, whoever enters it is safe.” That is why many have called this cave the temple of the Greek goddess.

Katlekhor Cave : cozy and comfortable place

The light that shines around the floor and ceiling stones of this cave fascinates people. This light creates an amazing beauty in this cave and for this reason, this cave is called the most beautiful cave in the world. To go to this cave, you have to reach 165 km south of Zanjan province to witness its beauties up close.
Katlekhor gives different meanings such as hill of the sun, village without the sun, etc. Is Turkish. “Katleh means low and high and the unevenness inside the cave and estuary means comfort and ease, which ultimately means comfortable and cozy low and high.”
Katlekhor Cave is located in the heart of Saqizloo Mountain and according to experts, this hill is about 30 million years old. It is not known when humans discovered this cave, but the people of Garmab city have many stories about this cave, for example, some residents believe that a number of people went into this cave but did not manage to find their way back.The entrance of Katlekhor Cave is in the form of a triangular arch with a diameter of 70 cm and the only way to reach the cave is from this part.”.
But if you are interested in going to this cave, you should know that you have to walk eight meters of the path in a chest-like manner. “This cave is known as the second largest cave in the world and the first cave in the world in terms of beauty. “In this cave, you can see vestibules, passages, huge columns and a number of hollow and Nissan chandeliers, which are among the rarest chandeliers.”

In this cave, you will not get bored at all because you can watch the chandeliers up close, which are in different shapes such as cauliflower, sleeping lion, lion’s paw, elephant’s foot, wedding dress, hunting dog, burnt palm, etc., but it is amazing. The most exciting thing about this cave is that you will feel different air in every corner of this cave. For example, the air at the entrance of the cave is cool, but the further we go, the warmer the air and the higher the humidity.


Rud Afshan Cave, Cave of Wonders, Tehran

Rud Afshan Cave is one of the most beautiful caves in Iran, which is located in the foothills of a village of the same name in Tehran province. Reaching the mouth of the cave requires a little mountaineering. The large opening and wide hall of this cave are its main features. The walking route in the cave is about 800 meters. Climbing in this cave is a bit difficult and you have to cross difficult paths. In addition, to move in the cave, you definitely need a strong flashlight. In the main hall and the path of the cave, water droplets always fall from the ceiling to the ground, and these drops have caused the formation of anticlines and novel synchronies.
The presence of a number of porches made of stone and some small pottery, is a sign of human habitation in the cave in the past. There is a vestibule in this cave which is known as Anahita Temple. The cave has a humid and cold air. Due to the drop of water, the bottom of the cave path is only wet and water has accumulated in a few places. The path of this cave is created by the erosion of water and salts in it when the water was completely flowing in it.

Chama Ice Cave, Chaharmahal Bakhtiari Province

Chama Ice Cave is located in front of Chama plain and looks like a big gorge and a snowy warehouse with snow depths of up to 50 meters. The icy layers of this cave are slightly thick in hot and low seasons and are very thin and loose, and it should be avoided to pass over them and inside the cave. Under the ice of this cave, springs or cold water are flowing, which eventually falls into Koohrang dam. . Being in deep valleys and accumulating volumes of snow for many years in this place has caused ice cubes and huge masses of snow to remain permanently in all seasons.

Being located in deep valleys and accumulating volumes of snow for many years in this place has caused ice cubes and huge masses of snow to remain permanently in all seasons. The large amount of snow in the Chama cave has become a place for fun and entertainment for the nomadic youth and teenagers of the Chama region, in addition to which, in recent years, the country’s summer ski competitions have been held here.

Ali Sadr Cave , Hamadan Province

Ali Sadr Cave is one of the wetland caves in Iran and one of the few water caves in the world. Ali Sadr is also the largest blue cave in the world. This cave is located in the heights of Sari Ghiyeh near Ali Sadr village of Kaboudrahang city in Hamadan province. The height of the cave is 2100 meters above sea level. The cave area has several winding corridors and vestibules.

From the series of waters, a large lake has been created inside the cave, and therefore penetration into the depths of the cave is possible only by boat. Ali Sadr Cave is one of the tourist attractions of Hamedan province. Ali Sadr Cave is the 23rd national natural monument that was included in the list of natural heritage of Iran by the Cultural Heritage Organization on December 6, 2008.


Saholan Blue Cave  of West Azerbaijan Province

Saholan Cave has two openings that open to the south and a few large forest trees that have risen from the rocks have cast their shadow on the main opening of the cave, which in addition to providing shade for tourists to the harsh and cold nature is doubly refreshing. Have forgiven. It is possible to navigate the blue part of the lake by rowing boats, but the dry part can also be seen on foot. The pier that takes tourists into the tunnels, corridors and lakes of the cave is located 45 meters below the main opening, which reaches the bottom of the lake inside the cave with 106 winding concrete steps.
Upon entering the cave, the smell of moisture is accompanied by a slight smell of sulfur. During the water journey inside the cave, each of the tourists, after receiving a life jacket, gets into the boats and starts moving.

The first lake in front of tourists is about 200 meters wide, which has clear and clear water. The corridor above the head of this lake is more than 50 meters high and at the end of it, two narrow corridors with a width of two meters can be seen that open to the next lakes and corridors.


Bishabour Cave or Shapur Cave of Kazerun city

This cave is located in a mountain with minerals. The mouth of the cave is 30 meters long and 15 meters high. Before entering the cave, there is a crypt on the left, part of which is handmade. About 10 meters after the entrance of the cave, the 7-meter statue of the first Sassanid Shapur appears. The cave consists of several parts: the first part is relatively flat and leads to the edge of a precipice with a length of about 80 meters. Both sides of the walls of this section were carved and smooth and clear for carving reliefs or writing, which are left half-finished and nothing can be seen on their large ledges.

At the left end of this section, two reservoirs have been dug in the rock at a distance of 0.5 meters from each other, each of which is about one meter deep. The dimensions of one are 4 × 3 meters and the other is 1.5 × 2 meters and both have stairs to access water. Water dripping from the roof to the bottom of the cave was collected in these ponds and met the needs of the residents. On the left side of the reservoirs, there is a beautiful stone waterfall and behind it, the most beautiful drops and large abstracts can be seen.


Bat Cave, the amazing natural museum  of Dehloran city

This cave, which is the only bat cave in Iran, is 255 meters long, 30 meters wide and 50 meters high, and is known as the Bat Cave due to the life of millions of bats inside it. These caves have large vestibules, some of which reach a depth of 400 meters. Dehloran Bat Cave is one of the historical caves of the cave-dwelling era, which later became a habitat for bats. Dehloran Bat Cave with more than 30,000 bats of 7 species such as “mouse tail” is one of the rare caves in the Middle East. This cave is one of the best places to do research, research and studies in the field of this strange mammal and students and researchers should study it.
Dehloran Bat Cave, as the only bat cave in the country, is one of the rare natural phenomena that has remained unknown to nature lovers. Dehloran Bat Cave has many stalactites and stalactites and dozens of species of bats and broad-winged bats live in it. The abundance of bats in this cave makes it an interesting atmosphere for nature lovers at sunset when these bats leave the cave, which is often done in large groups. The bats travel three kilometers to the city and return to the cave after a while. The only bat cave in the country, as a rare and natural phenomenon located in Ilam province, attracts many tourists in summer.

Stone Breakers Cave

In our country, there is a stone cave created by stone masons in Fars province with their own hands. This cave is known as Sang Shekankan Cave and is located in the southwest of Jahrom city of Fars province. “They built this cave.”

Although some locals and experts date the cave to the Fourier period, it is not yet possible to give an exact date for the construction of the cave tunnels. “Jahromi stonemasons extracted cave stones for their livelihood, and at that time Jahrom stone-breakers obtained white calcareous and malleable stones from the cave, and from its stones as a facade of buildings, decorating entrances. “They used paving the floors of houses and holy shrines and other important buildings.”

Examples of these worked stones can be seen in the buildings of Shiraz, especially in the Atiq Grand Mosque and Namazi Hospital. It is interesting to know that the stone breakers left columns when removing the stone to prevent the destruction of the cave, after a few meters of progress, which has made the cave more beautiful. The openings of the stone caves inside the mountain are so large that you can travel by car.

Jahromi masonry ax has created an attraction in the cave which has turned it into one of the most beautiful handmade stone caves in the world and has left a beautiful heritage. “This cave has 20 entrances and is 200 meters long and its width varies from 60 to 130 meters, which covers a total area of ​​about 20,000 square meters.”

Sam Cave : A hangout for professionals

wait! Before reading this article, you should know that if you are not a professional caveman, do not even think of traveling to this cave, we are talking about “Sam” cave, Sam is the name of a cave in Golestan province in the local language meaning hole and cave. It is accessible from Nam Nik village of Golestan province and is currently the second deepest and most technical cave in the country and has been explored and mapped to a depth of 406 meters. This cave is located at an altitude of 1700 meters above sea level and has an opening. Sam Cave near the top of Khajeh Ghanbar Mountain (Imamzadeh on top of the mountain) and in the western part of Nam Nik village, this natural cave is made of lime which has been expanded based on the flow of water from inside the limestone rocks.

Cave with beautiful vestibules and arches in which the presence of water has given a special effect to the cave. Masoud Ziarati, the head of public relations for cultural heritage and tourism in Golestan province, says about this mysterious phenomenon: “This cave is 375 meters deep and there are 21 wells inside it. When entering this cave, we encounter a narrow path that leads to “The ‘crabs’ route is famous, but unlike the crabs of other caves in our country, the bottlenecks in this cave are not complete, and most of the time the route has to be moved to one side and it is not even possible to turn the head.”
Another problem in the path of this cave for cavers is the decrease in temperature. That is why it is necessary to have caving facilities in this cave and to be a professional.

Massoud Ziarati continues about Sam Cave: “This cave gets colder and colder as you go forward. “In fact, from well 19 onwards, the temperature inside the cave drops to 6 degrees Celsius and we have to plan to warm up, otherwise the cavers will not be able to continue on their way.”
For professional cavers, this cave is very dangerous, because due to the difficult routes, rescue work is very difficult and even impossible, so the visiting teams must be fully prepared and equipped, otherwise a simple accident and a small incident can lead to death. They lead.
The passages of Sam Cave are so narrow and tortuous that only one person can cross himself and his backpack.”Research into the age of the Sam Cave has not yet reached a definitive conclusion, but specimens found in human and animal skulls in the cave show that it is very old. Evidence of this claim is the discovery of a bat skeleton that looks 10 times larger than a normal bat skeleton. The bats in this cave are almost extinct due to unknown reasons, and it is interesting that most of their skeletons are gathered in one place, but these bones are not the only sign of life in the cave, there is a special butterfly up to well four, which is rare. . »


Presence next to bats in the privacy of Goljik cave

Presence next to bats hanging in a dark spot. This is the wonderful adventure that if you are eager to experience it, you should travel near the city of Zanjan, in a dark and dreadful cave that traps the soul in the heart of any adventure and brings terror to its life.

This cave, which is called Goljik Cave in the local language, is also known by the people of this region as the Cave of Bats, a dark place where the eye does not see and the only thing that attracts your attention is the lightning of the eyes. There are hundreds of bats staring at you. In order to have the courage to step into the cave of bats, you have to get rid of fear. Upon arrival, the bats will greet you in a mass movement, and as you move forward, the skeletons and skulls of animals and even humans will stick to your hair.

This cave is not only the oldest cave, but also one of the scariest caves in Iran, but do not forget to go to this cave, you must observe some issues that do not harm the life of bats. Bats experience a quiet life. So enter the cave calmly and silently and do not disturb their silence.

Perhaps the best time to enter the cave is at sunset, when the bats leave the cave en masse and are a few kilometers away from where they live.Goljik Cave, which is naturally formed from the erosion of limestone, is located 35 km southwest of Zanjan city.