Iranian Folklore Music

Folklore or popular culture is anything that is prevalent in the social context of the masses of a society and includes different branches, including stories, music, and so on.

Folklore that flows in the heart of society is usually transmitted orally and breast to breast to the next generations of society. Folk music is also part of the popular culture of the people of any society. The concept of folk music or mass music has various characteristics.

Walter Vivera says that Tudeh song has three characteristics: First, it is created by the masses. Second, that the masses own it, and third, that the song is a reflection of the characteristics of the underlying class of society.

In other words, when we talk about folk music, we actually mean a type of music that is popular alongside the traditional or classical music of any nation. A type of music that arises from the social context of society and describes the life of its underprivileged. A type of music whose creators have not necessarily received musical education and have written the songs, rhythms and melodies used in it based on their lifestyle. In the lyrics of popular culture songs, the theme of which is often love, distance from the beloved and sometimes protesting against the prevailing conditions, one can understand the language of the masses well.

The interesting thing is that these songs are also different in each society according to the ethnicity of the people. For example, in the text of some songs, the role of agriculture and animal husbandry in people’s lives can be clearly seen, which can indicate that the song belongs to an area where agriculture or animal husbandry was prevalent. On the other hand, the musical style of these pieces of music also varies depending on the type of ethnicity. For example, in Iran, which is composed of different ethnicities, these differences are quite obvious when we explore local music. For example, when listening to Kurdish music, you can clearly feel the use of a 2.4 rhythm, which is combined in different types. Some believe that the use of this rhythm, which is also combined with Kurdish rhythmic movements, refers to years of fighting and the fighting spirit of the Kurds. On the other hand, Gilaki songs are significantly composed in the plain song of Shoor.

Finally, it is noteworthy that all these songs and popular melodies belong to the basic stratum of society and have been passed on orally to the next generations. It is possible that in most cases the name of the manufacturer of the piece is unknown

A look at Iranian folk music

Local songs are the first experimental basis of the music of any country, the sorrows, joys and failures and victories of the heroes and prominent personalities of the people find their way into this music and have a special value. The main music capital of a country should be sought in the local and indigenous music and songs of that country.

Iranian folk music originates from the history, culture and customs of people’s lives over the centuries. Folk music for the people of Iran is not just a simple means of entertainment or a source of spiritual satisfaction or a common art, but also related to the daily actions and behavior of people in society, a nation that tries to express their feelings with simple similes in the form of songs and They sing simple and folk songs and sometimes they can do it so skillfully that a lasting effect of them remains. Historical documents show that the Iranians were lovers of music from the first centuries of their civilization and history.

During the rule of the Achaemenids, the armies of this empire marched with the sound of music. Famous historians, especially Herodotus and Xenophon, have reported that during the Achaemenid period, music existed in three forms: court, religious, popular and military. Court music has been used to hold various ceremonies, songs, and religious rites at the court. Kings ordered drums, howls, and horns to be used to confuse prey.

 

Religious folk songs were about the performance of Zoroastrian rituals and ceremonies, which were often accompanied by music, songs whose lyrics were in the Ghats and parts of the Avesta were to be sung in groups with simple songs. Military music of the Achaemenid period was music that had characteristics that were played in order to stimulate and arouse the morale of the soldiers, in which they applied certain rules and principles and mostly used martial music, because music has social and economic conditions. The country was rising

Due to the conquests, consecutive battles and wars of the kings and the important role of music in these victories, music found its way to government organizations and many epic and war songs were composed. The instruments of the Achaemenid period were oud, harp and reed and a kind of organ (mouth instrument) and military music instruments such as trumpet, tambourine, cousin, drum, cup, drum, horn and serena. In Shahnameh, Ferdowsi refers to festive and martial instruments.

After the Achaemenids, the Sassanid era was the era of the country’s musical development. Shows musicians and instruments such as harps, serena, oud and tambourine. Khosrow II (628 590 AD) kept a number of musicians in his court, the most famous of whom are Ramtin Azad, Sarkash, Bamshad, Nakisa and Barbad.

Barbad was one of the most prominent musicians of the time who was tasked with setting up a single system of music consisting of seven 30-minute rehearsals and 360 songs (hands) apparently related to the days of the week, month and year in the Sassanid calendar. Attributed titles such as Kane Siavash, Takht Ardeshir, Bagh Shirin, Sabz Bahar and Haft Ganj are among the melodies made at that time, which unfortunately only its name remains and it is not possible to say exactly what?

However, the arrival of Islam in Iran further enriched Iranian folk music, and much of Iranian folk music was devoted to religious music, which, unlike Zoroastrian religious music, which consisted only of simple songs and hymns in Islamic religious music literature, Prose, poetry, drama, epic, myth, and costume design, painting, language, and accent were also important and influential.

Ashura music is one of the most significant examples of Iranian folk music in which there is lamentation, dhikr, manqabat, lamentation and fasting. It uses trumpets, drums and cymbals, and is often played not by professional musicians but by the general public, especially young people.

 

Iranian folklore is a mirror of the whole thought, culture and customs of the Iranian people, but because there are different ethnic groups living in Iran that are very different in terms of culture and ethnicity, so Iranian folk music has very diverse characteristics in terms of expression and tone of music. Is. Azerbaijani, Gilani, Khorasani, Bakhtiari, Kurdish, Shirazi and Baluchi music are not only different in melodies but also in dialects, very different and rich songs that have been passed down from generation to generation and try to convey emotions. And the emotions, thoughts and history of the people of that land are passed on to the new generation

 

For example, the music of the Turkmen is a constant retelling of the sufferings and pains that this people have endured, their music and songs are full of cries and complaints and heartbreaking lamentations of the Turkmen people due to the continuous repression by khans, feudal lords and The central government has never been able to express its wishes and desires explicitly, and music has been and is the greatest means of expressing the wishes of the Turkmen.

Perhaps this is why Turkmen music has been one of the most abstract and complex types of folk music in Iran. Turkmen folk musicians are known as Baghshi or Bakhshi, which includes two strings players and a fiddle player. Festivals, especially weddings, have long entertained people, and “idim”, the most important part of Turkmen folklore, is rhythmic and poetic, and includes love, heroism, the beauties of nature, and the praise of animals, especially horses. Another phrase is full of narrations, anecdotes and social and epic stories of that system that are read by the sections.

 

Music has deep roots in Turkmen. As Turkmen people are born and live with music and die with it. Celebrations, traditional games, mourning, nightclubs, rituals and the birth of children, especially boys, and weddings are all accompanied by music. The influence of nature in Turkmen folk music is one of its prominent features.

In Turkmen music, one can also recognize the rhythms resulting from the various invasions of the horse, or the sound of the bartar shoulder combing and the weaving of the carpet and the sound of the tedious work of felt-making work can be heard in the dotar percussion, instrumental and vocal compositions and the sound of the horn. These agents created the songs of Derna and Chabak Savar.

Shepherding is a Turkmen lyrical music in which a shepherd plays the reed with his sheep and in the meadows he sings to the ears of every listener by singing pleasant songs and lyric poems that express their hard times. Sometimes the Turkmens recite dhikr with a Roman dagger dance to ward off calamity and disease from the patient’s body and psyche, and sometimes they recite a dance recitation to get rid of evil spirits to heal the sick psyche.

Hoody or lullaby is a clear example of Turkmen emotional music that expresses the tender feelings and emotions of the mother on the child’s bed, who prays to God with good prayers, wishes and wishes for his glory. The girls all sing lullabies or recite Allah together while weaving carpets. They express their inner feelings and love, and at the same time, a solo girl with a qopuz or the same (tanburk) joins them and adds to its passion and beauty. Part of the Turkmen recites for people at weddings and celebrations with dotar.

 

In the recitation, the poems of the heroes and the epic poems are recited to the people along with Dotar. Although he does not speak happily, he speaks with pride and steadfastness, and this steadfastness, even in the sobs of part, indicates the proud sorrow of a people. This music with these features survives only at weddings.

The same thing that attracts attention in the percussion, ornaments, writings and rotations of the recitation melody is the same consistency. The continuity of this music through weddings, despite the apparent contradictions and differences between its content and the wedding ceremony, shows the special feature and complexity that exists in the Turkmen culture and traditions, and lamentation is the last music for the Turkmen man at the funeral. And his burial is played.

Regarding Gilan music, it can be said that Gilan music rhythm is inspired by nature and often remains pristine and untouched. Abu Nasr al-Farabi mentions the Gilani tambourine in his book Al-Musiqi: “… the method of tuning the Gilani tambourine is different from the Khorasanian child style” Songs and sounds in Gilan folklore cover all stages of a person’s life from the time the child looks at the world When he falls asleep, his mother sings a sad song called Gareh Sari (Cradle of Siri). Autumn arrives and the song of volgos fills the whole green line. With the arrival of spring, the paddy women with a crooked stature in the fields full of water and rice flowers They sing the song (Lily Marie) so that they do not feel tired of the tedious work on the hectares of rice paddies and sometimes tea fields. In Gilaki weddings, different sounds are played and played.

For example, when the bride is taken from the father’s house, the father stands next to the sad porch and watches the bride go, and this is where Serena’s musician performs a sad piece, but as he approaches the groom’s house, music is played cheerfully by instrumentalists and drummers. And young people are dancing. When the bride and groom enter the house, the workers who are cooking start moving the spoon and in one hand they raise the spoon or spatula and in the other hand the spoon and move it crosswise, and from the collision of the two, a song Happy emerges.

Kurdistan is the land of songs and melodies and in every region there are hundreds of songs, songs, beats and lullabies. World-famous historians and musicians believe that Kurdistan is the cradle of world music civilization. Greek historian Xenophon reports that in 401 BC, after the Greek invasion of Iran and the defeat of the Achaemenid king by the Greeks when the Greek army was about to return through Kurdistan, the Kurds sang Greek hymns and hymns. Attacked.

Xenophon added that the Kurds were familiar with the art of music at the time and used it in wars. Faskeh Music Special Issue published in France acknowledges: Ancient Iran and the land (Miso Putamia) (modern Kurdistan) has been the oldest cradle of world music because of its history and hard life in the mountains. It is combative and striking.

The Kurds are very interested in their culture, language and literature, tradition and music, and therefore have made great strides in folk music. Common instruments in Kurdish music are reed, serena, nabe, dahl, tonbak, tanbur and fiddle. One of the most important classical Kurdish verses is the Beat, which arises from a simple song and is sung in the description of the war and the generals and national figures in the mountains. Suz and Maqam is another type of Kurdish music that is due to internal burning and complaints.

 

Bakhtiari music and folklore

Folklore and folklore of the Bakhtiari people is one of the cultural treasures of Iran, which is rooted in the history and literature of this great nation. The art, music, literature and folk creations of this Iranian people have been preserved by the efforts of poets, artists, singers (singers xondegar), writers and musicologists of this border and environment and have been passed down from generation to generation. Among them, the poet, writer, musician and singer of the famous Bakhtiari, the late Bahman Aladdin (1319-1385 AH) has a great and influential role in reviving and perpetuating Bakhtiari culture. In this article, the works and effects of this myth of song and music in the present age are mentioned.

Keywords: Bahman Aladdin, Massoud Bakhtiari, Bakhtiari, Folklore, Music, Folk Culture,

Introduction:

“Bakhtiari” is one of the well-known Iranian letter writers, who has played a role in the socio-political history, culture and art of Iran from the past to the present. The people of Bakhtiari are proud of their glorious and rich culture, literature and folklore. This valuable treasure has its roots in the millennial history of Iran. Life with all its manifestations such as birth, sorrow, joy, connection, grief, death, etc., from childhood to old age, has lasting words that have been passed down from generation to generation in the language of the heart until it has reached contemporaries. Nomadic life and nomadic life in the heart High and “God-creating” mountains and crossing oak forests (balit) and Shimbar Valley plains, “Taraz” and “Minar” roads, etc. From these hard-working people, he has created people with the softness of silk and the hardness of steel. In the arts and literature, it is full of taste and beauty, and it is stable in battle and epic, because Zardkooh is glorious and stable. Their art and literature are rooted in religion, morality, and the romantic life of mountain men and women. Their music is not just the sound of instruments and instruments, it is the echo of migration and life, joy and pride and dynamism and movement. This music has reached us throughout history due to its rich content and harmony with the heart of its enduring poems as a family treasure and a rich legacy. We will pass it on to future generations as our artistic and proud ancestors. This great cultural mission is the responsibility of all people of the tribe. And tribe. A child who hears and remembers lullabies today, until a teenager who listens to “caravans” (work songs) with his mother and whispers to the elderly and old people who experience the days behind the white hair like the snow-capped peaks of the Zagros They have a role in this tribal commitment. People who, with their joyful songs, bring the memories of the past to the hearts and minds of the listeners in green velvet and gentle words. Sometimes they laugh and sometimes their warm tears wet their cheeks. Sometimes with their national pride. They sing “epic” and sometimes whisper the romantic “bits” of “Bilal” to themselves. Sometimes, from the heart of the mountains, we hear the poems “Fishing” and “Sarkohi” of the hunters of the tribe, accompanied by the shepherds who love the tribe, who sing the sad song of “Shir Ali Mardoon”. Bakhtiari-fascinated farmers sing “Bawe Ro” and “Barzegari” in the tribulation of their tribe.

The Bakhtiari people should be known for this culture and the support of this passionate literature.

 

Folk music in Lorestan

Cultural experts believe that the most obvious signs of ethnicity and the best means of identifying the characteristics of a nation is their native culture. Indigenous culture, as an sometimes honorable and sublime manifestation, reflects the existence and values ​​of each nation. Simple and hard-working people live among the mountains and plains and are directly acquainted with nature and its manifestations. These people are influenced by all the manifestations of life around them and have honest and sincere reflections on them in accordance with their perception and thought. The joys and sorrows of ordinary people are derived from the nature around them. Joyful emotions and isolationist depressions are the result of living conditions and reflect the impact of their environment, and the beliefs, spirits and beliefs of people living in the mountains and plains are clearly reflected in their behavior, speech, habits, traditions and especially their arts. Handicrafts, tools, customs, stories and poems and songs, clearly express the inner secrets and emotional characteristics of these people. Among all cultural elements, folk music, which is usually a combination of poetry and melody, reflects beliefs and values.

Music in Lorestan has a special color and mood that when listening to a song of Lori music, its origin is associated in the listener’s mind. The people of Lorestan, like the people of most parts of Iran, have two types of music:

  1. Music with free meter

  2. Music with a certain meter

Lorestan music is performed more or less like traditional song. Such as horseback riding – military reading (Khosrow Vashirin position – Shahnameh reading – Hoorah – religious positions

Or it appears in both music and vocal parts. In Lorestan music making, there are common songs that are used in conjunction with dance and dancing.

The lyrics of Lori’s songs are directly related to the real life of the people of Saman. The words war, enemy, gun, bullet, mother’s seal, and anything that elevates ethnic values. It is significant in Lori’s songs and shows the social status of these people in the past. Lori’s songs, while moving, have a deep sadness and a glorious state that is manifested in its melodies.

The point that needs to be reminded is that the music of Lori, Laki and Bakhtiari can be considered as a certain group of Lori music that with their more or less similar similarities, continue to live equally in the Zagros region. It should be noted that Bakhtiari Habish from Lorestan .

Lorestan Volks have kept their music from being influenced.