Familiarity with the history of Iran

When it comes to the history of Iran, it is necessary to consider whether it refers to the history of tribes and peoples who have lived within the political borders of present-day Iran since the beginning of history or the history of tribes and peoples who call themselves in some way Iranian. They lived in the geography that includes Iran today and the lands that have historically been part of Greater Iran (Iranshahr). Sometimes the history of Iran begins with the arrival of the Aryans, from whom Iran is also named, to the plateau of Iran. But this does not mean that the plateau of Iran was deserted or civilized before the arrival of the Aryans. Before the arrival of the Aryans on the plateau of Iran, very ancient civilizations had blossomed and withered in this place, and some were still flourishing.

The history of Iran is basically divided into two general parts, the history of Iran before Islam and the history of Iran after Islam, which are also divided into smaller parts.

 History of Iran before Islam:

 It is divided into three parts:

  • Iran before the Aryans
  • The migration of Aryans to Iran
  • Ancient Persia


History of Iran before the Aryans

Before the Aryans, various tribes lived in different parts of the Iranian plateau. In the history of Iran before the Aryans, the civilizations of the burnt city (in Sistan), the civilization of Ilam (in northern Khuzestan), the civilization of Jiroft (in Kerman), the civilization of the inhabitants of Silk hill (in Kashan) ), Urartu civilization (in Azerbaijan), Tappeh Gyan (in Nahavand) and civilization of Kassians (in Kermanshah and Lorestan) and Tapur in Tabaristan (Mazandaran) were in Iran.


The greatest civilization in the history of Iran was the Elamite state, whose land was in southwestern Iran and more or less corresponded to Khuzestan. The capital of Elam was the city of Susa, the relics of which have been found in this city. It seems that different parts of Elam had separate governments and each had its own kings.

These four regions were Avan, Anshan, Simesh and Shush. The Elamite state was often at war with the more developed Mesopotamian states, the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. This period became one of the largest forces in the region in periods of Iranian history. Since the emergence of the Persian emperors (550 BC), Elam has been one of the tributaries of Iran. The city of Susa was also a rich and glorious city at this time. The Elamite language was one of the three languages ​​in which the royal texts of Iran were written.


Aryan migration to Iran

The Aryans are a large branch of the white race, whose original homeland was probably from the northern Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the rivers Sihon and Jeyhun. They later moved to parts of Europe and in groups to Iran and India. As a result, Asian peoples and their languages ​​are called Indo-European. Aryan means noble. The Aryans of India and Iran have lived together for a long time and after a long time they separated and before the separation, they had myths and social organization and a common language.

In the history books of Iran, the time of the arrival of the Aryans to Iran is written as some 2,000 years BC and some from the 14th century BC to the 6th century BC. When the Aryans reached the plateau of Iran, they first exterminated the indigenous peoples but then exploited them. After entering Iran, the Aryans were divided into different tribes, the most important of which are the Medes, Parthians and Persians. The name Iran is derived from the name of the Aryans and means the land of the Aryans.

Perhaps there is no comprehensive and complete information about the governments and kings of Iran before and after the history of Islam, and perhaps no source has provided such a summary in full and in order. For this reason, in this article, we have decided to review the governments of Iran from the beginning to after the advent of Islam, and we will present the period of rule of each of the governments of Iran with their kings.

 Introducing the governments of Iran from ancient times to after Islam

It is said that the first kingdom of Iran and the first dynasty belonged to Kiomers and he was also mentioned in Avesta. Of course, his rule was formed during the time of early humans, and that was when humans lived in caves.

The governments of ancient Iran 


The Elamites were one of the first governments in Iran to have not published many details about this government in history, but it is said that the reign of the Elamites reached 500 years and the capital of the Elamites was probably chosen Susa.

According to legend, this civilization was also one of the Elamite civilizations that continued again with the center of Susa and lasted for 2161 years.


On the other hand, the Manichaeans with the capital of Buchan and the Persian language for 234 years are considered another government of Iran.


The kingdoms of pre-Islamic Iran

After ancient Iran, the period of monarchy or empire begins in the governments of Iran, which we will name in the following order of these governments of Iran.



The Medes ruled Iran by choosing Hegmataneh as their capital. The Medes were an Iranian ethnic group led by Diako. Of course, other rulers of the Medes include Hokhshtra and Azi Dahak. The Medes ruled for a long time, but the exact date of their reign is unknown.


Achaemenids Empire

The Achaemenids were first the native kings of Persia and then Anshan, but with the defeat of Cyrus the Great over Ishtvigo, the last king of the Medes, and then the conquest of Lydia and Babylon, the Achaemenid kingdom became a great empire. Hence, Cyrus the Great is considered the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus overthrew the Medes and established a new government called the Achaemenid Empire. The Achaemenids were the first civilized state in the whole world at that time. The Achaemenid period was a period of progress, culture and civilization, and it can be said with confidence that the Achaemenid period was a period of human revolution and a period of history of Iran and the world. Among the kings of the Achaemenid period, we can mention Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, Gaumatus, Darius, Xerxes, Ardashir, Xerxes II, Sogd Panus or Sogdians, Darius II, Ardashir II, Ardashir III, Aras and Darius III, respectively.

Seleucid Empire

Seleucus, general of Alexander the Great, came to power after his death and established Seleucid rule. The Seleucids were of Greek descent and brought Greek culture and language to Iran. This rule finally ended in the time of Antiochus II.


Parthian Empire

The Parthians were also a Greek civilization formed after the Seleucids. This government was formed with the kingdom of Ashk I or Arshak, and after that Tirdad, Ardavan, Free Yapte, Farhad, Mehrdad, Farhad II, Ardavan II, Mehrdad II, Goodarz, Ard, Sinatrok, Farhad III, Mehrdad III, Ard II, Farhad Fourth, Tirdad II, Farhad V, Flour III, Vanen, Ardavan III, Vardan, Goodarz II, Vanen II, to Lash, Pakour, Ardavan IV, Khosrow, to Lash II, to Lash III, to Lash IV, to Lash 5 and Finally, the fifth army ruled.


Sasanian Empire

Ardashir Babakan established the Sassanid rule after the Parthian rule, and the Sassanid capital was the city of Ctesiphon near Baghdad. Ardashir declared Zoroastrianism the official religion of the country. After the death of Ardeshir Babakan, his son Shapur I ascended the throne, he is considered one of the great Sassanid kings. Among the kings of this period are Ardeshir Babakan, Shapur I, Hormoz I, Bahram I, Bahram II, Bahram III, Narsi, Hormoz II, Shapur II, Ardeshir II, Shapur III, Bahram IV, Yazdgerd, Bahram V or Bahram Goor, Yazdgerd Second, Hormoz III, Pirooz, referred to Lash, Ghobad I, Zamasb, Anoushirvan Dadgar, Hormoz IV, Khosrow Parviz, Ghobad II, Ardeshir III, Shirviyeh, Queen Pourandokht, Hormoz V and Yazdgerd III.


Governments of Iran after Islam

Umayyad dynasty

After the victory of the Arabs against the Sassanids, the rule of the Arabs and the Islamic government in Iran began, and the first Islamic governments of Iran were in fact the Umayyads who made Damascus their capital. The Umayyad rule was in fact the rule of Umar, Uthman and Imam Ali.


Abbasid dynasty

After the weakening of the Umayyads, the Abbasid rule was formed by Abu Muslim Khorasani and he chose Baghdad as its capital. The Abbasids ruled for more than 500 years.


Tahirid dynasty

The Taherian government was the first independent government after the Arab invasion. Tahir Zuliminin, one of the commanders of Ma’mun, established this government and this government was named Taherian. Neishabour was also chosen as the capital of this government. The Taherian government was suppressed by Yaqub Laith Saffari during the time of Muhammad ibn Tahir.


Alid dynasties

The Alawites were descendants of Imam Hassan (AS) and formed their government in Tabarestan and Deylam and chose Amol as their capital. Eventually, the Alawites are destroyed by the Samanids. This government had two kings named Daei Kabir and Nasser Kabir.


Saffarid dynasty

Yaqub Laith formed the Saffarid government after the defeat of the Taherians. After Ya’qub, Amrulith took over the rule of the Saffarids. This rule was ended by the Samani emirs, but their rule lasted 134 years and ended during the reign of Khalaf ibn Ahmad.


Samanid dynasty

The Samanids began their rule after the defeat of the Saffarids and are said to have ruled for 124 years. The capital of the Samanids was Bukhara, and great figures such as Abu Ali Sina and Abu Rihan al-Biruni lived during the Samanid period.


Ziyarid dynasty

Al-Ziyar or Ziari were from the Gilan region and took control of Iran. Mardavij ibn Ziyar, the founder of Ziari, claimed to be from a pre-Islamic royal family. The rule of Ziariyan finally ended during the rule of Gilanshah.


Buyid dynasty

These governments were in fact independence seekers who formed independent governments after the arrival of the Arabs to return to Iran before and to gain Iranian dignity. This rule was started by Emad al-Dawla Ali and ended during the reign of King Rahim. In the meantime, Az-Dawla was one of the rulers who played a role in the development of the country and was better known than other rulers in this period.


Ghaznavid dynasty

Ghaznavids were a powerful government formed in Afghanistan. This Muslim government also conquered India. The rule of the Ghaznavids began with the Alpine Tekin and ended with Khosrow Malek. Of course, rulers such as Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni and Sultan Massoud also ruled during this period. It should be noted that Ferdowsi lived during the Ghaznavid period.


Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuk rule began with the rule of Tughral, ​​and after that we saw the rule of Alb Arsalan, Malikshah, Sultan Sanjar and other Seljuk kings. The Seljuks established their rule with victory over the Ghaznavids and consolidated their power with the help of the great ministers, but eventually the rule of the Seljuks was ended by the Khwarezmshahis.


Khwarazmian dynasty

The Khwarezm Shahs, who ruled for 154 years, left their capital, Neishabour. Nezami Ganjavi and Attar Neyshabouri lived during the reign of the Khwarezmshahis. The rule of the Khwarezmshahs was finally overthrown by the Mongols and conquered by the Mongols.



After the Khwarezmshahis, Iran was under the control of Genghis Khan for a while, and it can be said that Iran was destroyed.



The Ilkhans were one of the other Mongol governments that began with the rule of Hulagu and ended with the rule of Abu Sa’id. It is said that Rumi lived in this period of history. This rule lasted 79 years. It should be noted that after the rule of Ilkhana, there were other small governments in different parts of Iran, such as shepherds, Muzaffaris, Sarbadars, Jalairians and other such governments.



The Timurids also had their roots in the Mongols. This rule began with Timur Lang, and Timur was a relative of Genghis Khan. It should be noted that Hafez lived in this period of history. The Timurid rule lasted 35 years, and of course during this period, governments such as Qaraquyunlu, Aqquyunlu and Marashian were also formed.



The Safavid rule was started by Shah Ismail Safavid and other kings of the Safavid rule include Tahmasb I, Ismail II, Mohammad Khodabandeh, Shah Abbas, Shah Abbas II, Shah


A brief overview of how to form a strong government in Iran

The plateau of Iran was considered by the Aryan nomadic tribes about three thousand years ago. They were herders who moved from Central Asia and Siberia and gradually settled in parts of the Iranian plateau. Some of them settled in the central areas, some in the valleys and plains of the Zagros. They mostly chose agriculture and some chose nomadic life.

The Aryans merged with the native tribes to form three prominent groups; The Medes in the west, the westerners in the east and the Persians in the south of Iran.

The Medes were an Aryan ethnic group that established an important state in central, northwestern, and western Iran in the early seventh or late eighth century BC. From their artistic and cultural heritage, works have been obtained in Hamedan, Sarpol-e Zahab (near Kermanshah), which shows that these tribes have taken steps to flourish their taste, initiative and artistic abilities and have been effective in establishing Iranian civilization.

The Persians are one of the most important Aryan groups from which the Achaemenids were formed. It seems that they settled near present-day Susa in the state of “An Shan” in the country which was named after its conqueror “Parsumash”.

Cyrus I was the ruler of Parsumash. Cyrus II became the ruler of the Persian tribes around 558 BC. He defeated the Medes but was influenced by Median civilization and culture. With the conquest of Media, this powerful ruler subdued the Parthians and captured the Lady, who was supported by Babylon, Egypt and Sparta.

After the conquest of Babylon, Cyrus subjugated all the western countries up to the Egyptian border. Thus, due to the high will and steadfast efforts of the unknown soldiers who operated under his command, Iran became a huge country that stretched from the north to the Caucasus Mountains, the Caspian Sea and the Seyhun River, from the west to the Mediterranean, from the south to Saudi Arabia and the Sea of ​​Oman. From the east it reached the Indus River and the Hindu Kush Mountains.

With this vast territory and extraordinary authority, the people who were defeated by the Iranian armies were not oppressed, and their followers in every sect and religion were free to perform their religious rites. Looting and killing were disgusting in Iranian thought and culture, and the forces of this government did not deviate from the path of justice and fairness, which is why they were even praised by their enemies and opponents.


Comparison of two realms

The policy of Iran during the Achaemenid period was based on sound governance, and observance of correct customs. The development of human relations was based on dignity and expediency, and governors were advised to train their subordinates in such a way as to acquire the necessary expertise in accepting part of the assigned tasks. The central government evaluated the behavior of the rulers of the states and regions of the country, and if there were signs of violence, rebellion and oppression in their records, or if they had failed to develop the cities and maintain their security, they would have been fired.

At that time, Greece was considered the cradle of civilization and culture, knowledge and wisdom in Southeast Europe, but the mountains, deep valleys and numerous islands separated the people of this land and each nation ruled for itself. He believed in something. This and the lack of development of the means of communication did not allow a single government to emerge in Greece. The Greeks lived apart and were reluctant to unite, but when they saw the astonishing progress and influence of Iran’s military policy in the East and the West, they came together and formed military alliances in the face of a common danger.

Sparta and Athens were two separate countries, facing each other politically and culturally. In the land of Sparta, cruel breeding laws were enacted. In this government, children with physical and limb disabilities were killed, and special family inspectors oversaw the training of strong and healthy individuals, and the purpose of these controls was to use manpower in military operations.

Under the pretext of staying away from luxuries, people wore light and uniform clothes in the cold and heat and were not allowed to travel outside of Sparta so as not to be influenced by others. The Spartan government encouraged young people to commit robbery and violence, and if a young man was arrested for robbery, he was flogged for failing!

The political method of Sparta was based on the election of rulers by lot, the bribery of heads of state, the incompatibility of authoritarian commanders and admirals. Due to the war and bloodshed, the country’s treasury was empty and the situation of the people was chaotic. In this situation, corruption and wrongdoing increased day by day.

Aristotle admits: The Greek people and the founders of the government of this realm did not consider the best social goal, and instead of focusing on virtues in education, they resorted to lowly deeds and showed only a desire for things. Which had material benefits.


The obvious difference

Unlike Sparta in Athens, people sought literacy and knowledge and worked for cultural development, but unfortunately people were divided into citizens and slaves, and the lives of the lower classes were disturbed.

Agricultural lands were in the hands of some aristocrats. Usury was common, and people pledged their land due to distress and poverty, and lost it after a period of inability to repay the loan. Ordinary people were sentenced to death for crime and wrongdoing, but those with social and economic privileges were eventually imprisoned until Solon (the great Athenian legislator) reformed and struck a balance between the masses. . Of course, polytheism, superstition, divination and resorting to delusions must also be added to the above. While in Iran, a general policy with justice and fairness was the basis of governing the country and there were no socio-economic privileges among the people.

In Achaemenid Iran, everyone who worked in the field of science, literature and culture achieved high positions and titles. Jamasb is one of the scholars of this era who traveled long distances and wrote valuable books. With the permission of the central ruler, he was accepted to the Hamedan Association, which was a scientific center. The members of this association were all enthusiastic, knowledgeable and literary. The meeting place of this scientific academy in ancient Iran was the present city of Hamedan. They researched in various sciences and amazed the people of the world with important discoveries and inventions.

The battle begins

Iran was repeatedly invaded by tribes living in southern Europe. Darius, in order to maintain the sovereignty of his territory and ensure the security of the people with simultaneous and joint amphibious operations, drove the navy from the Black Sea and the land forces from the Bosphorus Strait by land to Europe and crossed the Danube, opened the territory of Macedonia. And to prevent Greek influence in West Asia, it created a security fringe and established a headquarters to conduct military operations against Greece.Darius sent ambassadors to follow or unite with them in order to complete the argument with the Athenians and Spartans, but they killed his envoys, and this move led to the Iran-Greece war in 490 BC. Created.

One of these battles was the marathon war, in which two Iranian generals named Dietz and Artafren marched to Athens on the marathon plain and clashed with the Greeks. The Greek troops, well aware of the situation in the region, repulsed the Iranian attack. Darius wanted to continue the battle with more and more organized forces, but his deadline did not come and his successor reached his son Xerxes.Will Durant writes in the History of Civilization: “These fathers and sons were worthy people, and adds that if we think that the war between the Greeks and the Iranians is a civilized nation against a savage nation, we have made a big mistake.”By killing the ruling messengers of Iran, the Spartans violated one of the most important principles of international relations. To compensate for this mistake, they decided to send two men to the court of Iran and surrender to Xerxes, but this ruler, according to Herodotus (Greek historian), was spiritually great. He was not willing to retaliate and did not violate the laws between nations, but he did not remain silent and with a delay of four years followed the preparations for the second Iranian attack on Greece. He asked all the provinces of the country for IRGC and war equipment and provided a very large army. Xerxes crossed the Strait of Dardanelles with this huge army by a bridge he had built by boat and reached Greece via the Sea of ​​Marmara.Xerxes’ army advanced successfully. They clashed with Greek troops through the Strait of Thermopylae and captured the city of Athens.The Greeks fought the war from land to sea, and near the island and the Gulf of Salamis a fierce battle broke out between the two sides, and thus the Iranians failed to capture Greece, and the naval war ended in favor of the Greeks.The Iran-Greece war was the first confrontation between East and West. This war revolutionized Greek culture and was replaced by Rome, then Europe emerged.


Distortion of Eastern culture

Zack Snyder, the director of 300, which uses a historical story in this 117-minute film, has imaginatively and exaggeratedly distorted many historical facts, as if every human being had a false wisdom and was anti-Iranian. Will understand.In this film, the Iranians are introduced as savage, bloodthirsty and uncivilized tribes, but the Spartans are civilized, free, zealous and warlike. The design of the clothes and makeup of the Iranians is similar to the members of the al-Qaeda terrorist group! This move shows the bias of those involved in this film. It seems that the enemies who have not succeeded in isolating Iran in the political, economic and international arenas have tried to organize an artistic and cultural battle against the Iranians, thereby preventing the growth of revolutionary ideas and the export of values.Throughout the film, Persian civilization is portrayed as barbaric, savage, and thirsty for blood and crime, and Xerxes is portrayed as a tyrannical king deprived of civilization and resembling African rulers.The main distortion of this film is the likeness of the story of the betrayal of the Greeks (oppressive killing of the Iranian ambassadors) and the inhuman treatment of these envoys to the Achaemenid court, but we do not see anything in the film by Xerxes observing diplomatic principles and human relations.The film suggests to the viewer that Iranian domination of Greece is tantamount to slavery, murder, and burning, while historical reality proves otherwise based on the writings of Aristotle, Herodotus, and Will Durant.Despite showing the greatness of Greek culture and architecture in this film and on the other hand showing the One Million Division


When it comes to the history of Iran, it is necessary to consider whether it refers to the history of tribes and peoples who have lived within the political borders of present-day Iran since the beginning of history or the history of tribes and peoples who call themselves in some way Iranian. They lived in the geography that includes Iran today and the lands that have historically been part of Greater Iran (Iranshahr). Sometimes the history of Iran begins with the arrival of the Aryans, from whom Iran is also named, to the plateau of Iran. But this does not mean that the plateau of Iran was deserted or civilized before the arrival of the Aryans. Before the arrival of the Aryans on the plateau of Iran, very ancient civilizations had blossomed and withered in this place, and some were still flourishing.

The history of Iran is basically divided into two general parts, the history of Iran before Islam and the history of Iran after Islam, which are also divided into smaller parts.