Iran is the eternal land of the Aryans
Most historical sources consider the people of Iran today to be the remnants of the Aryans who migrated from the far north to the south and the present land of Iran and destroyed the native peoples and civilizations of this land and replaced them. The history of these migrations varies widely Range from about 3000 years to 5000 years ago; And the origins of these migrations are mentioned with greater differences, in a wide range from West and North and Central Europe to East Asia, the Baltic Sea, the Scandinavian Peninsula, the plains of North Central Asia and the Caucasus, Siberia and even the North Pole. The wide range of these differences indicates the weakness of the theories and the lack of reasons and arguments for it.
Most contemporary historical texts have concluded these origins and this great migration with only a few short and vague and inaccurate sentences and phrases, and have not introduced these principles of migration precisely and have not fully and sufficiently discussed it. In these texts, it is often enough to draw a map with a few large arrows, which is drawn from all over Siberia and from the left and right of the Caspian Sea to the middle of Iran.
Since we know that human migration and displacement of civilizations throughout history have always been due to the achievement of “better living conditions”, in ancient times these “better conditions” were especially more abundant water and more fertile soil. If we can provide reasons to believe that in ancient times the characteristics of the climate and natural landscape on the plateau of Iran were more appropriate than today; On the other hand, it should be noted that the climatic characteristics in the northern lands of Iran were more unsuitable than today and even in ancient times; We can question the great migration of Aryans to present-day Iran and even raise the possibility of migrations from Iran to other parts of the world.
Since population growth has always occurred in suitable and human-friendly ecosystems, it seems unlikely that ancient societies ignored the land with a suitable and temperate climate of Iran and lived in the ever-cold and icy lands of Siberia. After that, they noticed Iran. We also know that no field settlements have been found in those areas.
Iranians or Aryans did not migrate “to Iran”
In this talk, we will deal with the hypothesis that Iranians or Aryans did not migrate “to Iran”, but that these Aryans are among the same indigenous peoples living in Iran who migrated “in Iran” and “from Iran” and dispersed.
We know that the last ice age on Earth began about 14,000 years ago and ended about 10,000 years ago. Glacial periods create large and vast glaciers in the poles and high mountains, and in the lands of the middle reaches, including Iran, in the form of rainy and rainy periods. Rainy periods have been observed at the same time as interglacial periods and rainy periods have been observed at the same time as glacial periods.
Sediments of internal pits show that Iran has witnessed heavy rains in hot and cold periods, which has established humid climates and the expansion of forests in Najd, Iran, and in cold glacial periods has welcomed cold and dry climates.
Thus, about 10,000 years ago, with the end of the last glacial period, the hot and humid climate in Iran began. Archaeological evidence shows that with the onset of hot and humid periods and the retreat of glaciers to the north, the amount of rainfall gradually increases. It reaches its maximum about 6000 years to 5500 years ago, which was 4 to 5 times the average today. Subsequently, the water of inland lakes rises to its highest level and all pits, deserts, valleys and waterways are filled with water. This is a period that is mentioned in the mythology of different nations with various letters, including the storm of Jamshid era and the storm of Noah.
Increased rainfall and flooding of rivers once again intensified about 4,500 years ago, but soon the rains ended, and about 4,000 years ago droughts and hot and dry periods began, culminating in 3,800 years ago, and as we will see later. See, this time coincides with the great displacement of civilizations on the plateau of Iran and the decline and extinction of many settlements and ancient cities and villages of Iran.
The warm and humid climate of the period between 10,000 and 4000 years ago has provided rich vegetation and dense forests in the land of Iran and even in today’s dry and waterless desert and grass. At that time, the expansion of forests and the retreat of the hot deserts had formed a green and date-like land in Greater Iran, and the plains of present-day northern Afghanistan were covered with vast savannas (thin forests) and wet grasslands.
Abundance and trees in northern Afghanistan, and especially in the western part of it, which is called Badghis (in Avesta “Vaitiges”), is reported in the Pahlavi text: “Vatgisan is a place full of trees and full of trees.” This climatic situation of northern Afghanistan is also mentioned in the historical texts of the Middle Ages; Masoudi mentions a beautiful Balkh with abundant water, trees and meadows; Balkhi preacher mentions one hundred thousand Balkh trees in the virtues of Balkh; Nezami Aroozi, according to Shahriar Samani, considers it superior to paradise for its date and greenery; And Faryeh Sayyah considers Badghis rangelands as the best rangelands in all of Asia. Today, large parts of Badghis and Balkh are composed of dry desert and quicksand. These quicksands and scorching deserts are seen as widely as possible, especially around Kerman and Sistan; While in historical texts two thousand years ago, forests and meadows are mentioned in these areas.
At this time, the land of Iran had very rich pastures and dense wildlife habitats. In this area, there are ponds, reservoirs and natural wetlands with fresh water, which are home to a variety of aquatic animals and birds, as well as large forests and dense reeds.
According to the data of the upper parts, between 10,000 and 4000 years ago, hot and rainy climates prevailed throughout the Iranian plateau, in addition to which the surface of the land and rivers as well as the estuaries of the rivers were lower than today and the surface of lakes and reservoirs was higher than today. As a result, all inland pits, lowlands along lakes, valleys, deserts and dry rivers today have abundant and fresh water and throughout Iran there is a lush climate with vast pastures and rich in plant and animal products and suitable conditions for human life.
Archaeological evidence of warm and humid climates between 10,000 and 4,000 years ago also confirms archaeological findings and signs. On the other hand, a large part of the ancient hills and ancient settlements of Iran belong to the same period of 6000 years of hot and rainy years, and all of them are scattered along salt deserts, dry rivers and dry areas and grass, which is a sign of better weather conditions at the time. It has the formation and permanence of those civilizations.
The settlement of these civilizations along the holes and dry and salt deserts, has been a sign of abundant and fresh water in them, and today’s dry rivers near the hills have provided sufficient and clear water to the people of the city or village.
On the other hand, there are no signs of ancient hills along today’s seas. Ancient hills in the south are several hundred kilometers from the coast of the Persian Gulf, which shows that during the glacial period, when the sea level of the southern seas was lower than the current level, human settlements were submerged after sea level rise, and during the glacial period, the sea level of the southern seas was submerged. The surface of the three great rivers Karun, Tigris, and Euphrates was lower, and the water of the Persian Gulf reached as far as the civilizations of that day in Susa and Sumer. Sumerian inscriptions narrate the infiltration of water into Miandorod and mention the ancient city of Erido as a “city by the sea”.
Ancient settlements in the north and on the shores of the Caspian Sea are tens of kilometers away from the coast, which shows that during the prosperity of those universities, the level of the Caspian Sea was higher than today. Also, the remains of ancient dams, including dams and dams built on the valleys and waterways of Mount Khajeh in Sistan, are a sign of more rainfall in their time. These dams provided the necessary water for the shrines and other buildings on the top of Khajeh Mountain. Today, not only those canals, but even our lakes have dried up completely. Recent droughts in Iran have shown that even a few years of lack of rainfall can quickly dry up lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers, destroying the life cycle and environment in them. The drying up of Lake Arjan in Fars and Zayandehrood in Isfahan was an example of this worrying phenomenon.
Archaeological evidence also confirms the effects of sediments from many floods around 5,500 years ago. For example, we can mention the excavation of Qarah Tappeh by Professor Mir Abedin Kaboli in Qamroud region, which was carried out with the aim of recording the range of changes and changes caused by water floods. According to this, about 5500 years ago, the occurrence of terrible floods led to the abandonment and depopulation of the entire Qamrud region and the migration of people to higher adjacent areas.
In addition, the presence of pottery drawings of gazelles, elephants, deer, water-dependent birds and aquatic animals, and even turtles, fish and crabs, has been indicative of favorable climatic conditions during the spread of those civilizations.
It should also be noted here that at the same time as the period on the plateau of Iran where the environmental conditions are very favorable for human societies and it is exploited, throughout the territory of Siberia and North Central Asia and the North Caucasus that those areas Considering the migration of Aryans, only a few examples of burrows or evidence of non-migratory life have been found, including shelters in the northern parts of the Aral Sea catchment area. At that time, in those lands, only the remaining cold and ice from the ice age prevailed, and what was found generally belonged to newer eras and the migration of Iranians and other tribes to those parts.
Evidence from mythology and ancient texts
Evidence from mythology and ancient texts From the point of view of mythology and ancient texts, the myth of the hurricane is a relic of a rainy and wet time. In Pahlavi texts, including Bandahesh, it is stated that “Tishter” made a rain from which the seas arose and water covered all parts of the earth, and the lands on the ground were divided into seven parts or seven countries due to the rising water.
In Vandidad, a demon named “Mehrak Osha” who is mentioned in some Pahlavi letters to “Malkush” and in Minoodi Khord called “Malkus”, is mentioned as a terrible demon who has been causing rain, hail, snow, wind and wind for several years. It rains.
According to Vandidad, Ahuramazda informs Jamshid of this harm and orders Jamshid to build a place called “War” so that each of the pure creators of the Creator, from people, birds, birds, cattle, plants, seeds, plants, fire, and whatever Use the life of the people to keep it in that place, and after the onslaught of this demon and the quenching of the storm, they will come out of that refuge and rebuild the world and save it from nothingness.
This Iranian story has been narrated in various forms. Hindus, among others, believe that the great storm caught Manu, but Vishnu, who had made himself into a fish with a large horn, guided his ship so that it could land in the “Northern Mountains.” Vishnu himself had previously informed Manu of the great storm and ordered him to deal with it. Manu ordered seven scientists and a pair of males and females, all of the universe’s creatures, to disembark and spread across the land as the waters dried up. Manu also took the seeds of all the plants with him.
The term “northern mountains” in the stories of Indians living in the lands around the Indus River (India) and the Punjab is a clear reference to their migration from the Pamir and Bakhtakhs mountains of present-day Afghanistan, which was one of the main Iranian lands.
Another version of the Great Flood is the story of the Flood of Noah, the oldest known version of which belongs to the Sumerians and is later adapted by the Babylonians and Akkadians and repeated in the Old Testament (Torah).
The story of the Great Storm and the Floods is also told in traditional Chinese history. According to the “Bamboo Books” in the time of Yu, the founder of the “Shia” dynasty or the first dynasty, huge floods swept across the empire to the highest hills. Yu competently manages to quell the floods in thirteen years.
Evidence of the state of the ancient seas can also be seen in the works of Abu Rihan al-Biruni (such as “Limiting the Ends of Places”). When describing the construction of the Suez Canal by order of the Persian kings, Biruni mentions a sea instead of the lower lands of Egypt; The sea whose existence is also mentioned in the works of Herodotus. He believes that during the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, this sea expanded to such an extent that ships sailed not only on the Nile tributaries, but also on the dry plains of today, passing by the pyramids on their way to Memphis.
Oral myths and legends narrated by the people of the central desert regions of central Iran confirm the existence of a large sea in the place of today’s dry desert. The author has heard many stories in the cities of Damghan, Saveh, Kashan, Zavareh, Meybod, Nain, Yazd and Bardaskan, most of which refer to the great sea, numerous islands, ports and harbors and even lighthouses. In the following, the author only mentions two other points:
First, the narration of Fargard II Vandidad and the expansion of the earth and the expansion of people due to the increase in population in the time of Jamshid and towards Nimroz and the way of the sun, which according to the author refers to Nimroz or south here to the hot midday sun and warming air. Nor does it refer to the expansion of human societies, which in this case clarifies the interpretation of “the way of the sun”, the direction of its distribution, which is from “east to west”.
And second, the story of Fereydoun in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh and the division of the world kingdom between his three sons Iraj and Salm and Tour, which is a reference to the migration of Iranians from the heart of Iran to the eastern and western lands. Salm and Tori, who later, according to Iranian reports, attacked their younger brother and are a reference to the invasion of their native land by the inhabitants of the eastern and western lands of Iran.
But after this golden age, about 4000 to 3800 years ago, a great drought and famine occurred and the hot and humid period gave way to the hot and dry period. At this time, water levels are rapidly declining, and smaller lakes and rivers are drying up, putting human settlements in a major crisis. A crisis that begins with water scarcity and quickly turns into food shortages, stagnation and destruction of agriculture, desertification, destruction of pastures, loss of natural habitat and its dire consequences.
This drought causes the people living in Iran, the people who descended from the mountains after the great storm and rebuilt their former lands, again and again, despite their heart’s desire, to find more suitable lands to search and distant alleys. And undoubtedly such undesirable natural events and shortages of human needs have led to disputes, conflicts, wars and devastation. Conflicts between the inhabitants of small and still more or less fertile oases are inevitable with newcomers seeking water and land.
These consequences have been confirmed by archaeological excavations in almost all the ancient hills of Iran: “The end of the period of human life about 4000 years ago and with a layer of burns and destruction.” The destruction and burnout, which was not the result of the Aryan invasion, but the result of conflicts over the limited resources of human needs and lasted until about 3,500 years ago, hundreds of years that, with the exception of a few civilizations in southwestern Iran and Miandorod, rarely in the ancient hills. In this course we get. These years of relative silence in the history of Iran are very similar to the conditions of Zahak’s reign in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh.
Beginning of the Iron Age
At the end of this period and at the same time with the beginning of the Iron Age, about 3500 years ago, the improvement of the climate gradually begins and provides the ground for the expansion and prosperity of modern Iranian civilizations that reached their previous climatic conditions about 2800 years ago.
Given the above, the issue of Aryan migration from the north to the present-day lands of Iran and Central Asia does not seem possible. What comes to mind is that the Aryans are the same indigenous people who have lived since ancient times in this land that was suitable for life in every way, and the traces of their civilization have been seen in abundance in this land and elsewhere a trace of habitation. They are not obtained. It is true that the cultural and civilizational changes of the Iron Age are the logical result of the evolution of the Bronze Age and not the developments resulting from the entry of other tribes into the region. These native Aryans of Iran migrated to the highlands when the rainfall increased sharply; And when the rain fell sharply, they returned to their former lowlands. They have migrated from the heart of Iran to other places at least twice after the Great Storm:
- Once after the retreat of the inland seas and lakes and the drying up of the swamps left over from the great storm, which migrated and landed from the adjacent mountains to the plains and flat sedimentary and fertile plains; As a result, these migrations were “vertical” migrations from the heights to the plains and valleys. The time of the beginning of these displacements was in the middle of the hot and humid period, and after the end of the heavy rains called the flood of the age of Jamshid or the flood of Noah, and about 5500 years ago. Examples of such migrations are two major migrations: first, the migration of Aryan Indians from around the Hindu Kush mountains to the newly dried-up lands of the Punjab and around the Indus River, whose historical monument remains in the ancient Hindu Riguda texts; And another, the migration of the Elamites and Sumerians, which has been carried out from the western mountains of Iran to the newly dried swampy lands of Khuzestan and Miandorod or Mesopotamia. In the ancient sections of the Old Testament or the Torah (Genesis, chapter 1), the event of the Sumerian migration is explicitly noted as a migration “from the east” to the land of Sumer or Shinar. The latter group carried the idea of civilization with them to the Nile Valley and Egypt in Africa, and the Egyptians used it to make great strides. In this regard, there are even hypotheses about the migration of Phoenicians from the shores of the Persian Gulf to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, we know that the Sumerians were physically very similar to the inhabitants of present-day Balochistan and Afghanistan and the Indus Valley; Their works of art and architecture testify that the Sumerian civilization and the civilization of northwestern India or the eastern lands of Iran were similar to each other and undoubtedly originated from the same origin. Recent excavations by Professor Yousef Majidzadeh in the Jiroft area have further reinforced this hypothesis.
- And again, migrations during the drought between 4000 and 3500 years ago, which, in search of more suitable areas, changed their place of residence and sought better habitats, from Iran or, in Sumerian terms, from their native “holy land” to Other lands discovered and abandoned the settlements they had built 5,500 years ago and lived in for 1,500 years due to adverse climatic events.
In the ancient land of Greater Iran, various tribes and peoples lived, one of whom and probably the common cultural name of all of them was “Aryan”. “All the tribes and peoples of present-day Iran” are the children of “all those ancient tribes and peoples” and including the Aryans. Over time, along with climate change, they have taken numerous small and large alleys, mostly from the heights of the mountains to the plains and vice versa. The origin of Iranian history can not be attributed only to the idea of immigration that has an unknown time, unknown origin, unknown destination and unknown route, and only they are considered the ancestors of today’s Iranians.
In ancient Iranian beliefs, “North” or “Apakhtar” is the base of the devil; It is the place of the court and the wicked and the entrance to hell. Iranians who have always loved their homeland, their homeland and their homeland, would not talk about it like this if the northern lands were their origin.
In view of all the evidence summarized so far, it appears that the Iranians or Aryans did not migrate “to Iran”; Rather, they have migrated “in Iran” and “from Iran” and scattered to other places.
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