One hundred places to see in Iran
Iranian UNESCO World Heritage Site
Iran is one of the countries with a long history and its origins go back to prehistoric times. About 40,000 years ago, early humans entered Iran and Neolithic artifacts can be seen in many parts of Iran. Then the Medes came here around 1700 BC.
The Medes were a Persian and Indo-European people. After the Medes, the Achaemenids, who were also Persians, ruled the country. The Parthians and Sassanids also came to power after the Achaemenids. From the post-Islamic governments, we can include the following: Taherians, Saffarians, Samanids, Ziariians,
Buyan, Ghaznavids, Seljuks, Khwarezmshahis, Ilkhans, Safavids, Afshari, Zandi, Qajar, Pahlavi and finally referred to the Islamic Republic. Iran is geographically in the best regional position. From the east with Afghanistan and Pakistan, from the northeast with Turkmenistan
It is bordered by the Republic of Azerbaijan and Armenia to the northwest and Turkey and Iraq to the west. The waters of the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman cover the entire southern part of Iran and the Caspian Sea the northern part of Iran. Our vast homeland is a country with different climates and is generally mountainous and semi-arid
Its average height is more than 1200 meters above sea level. More than half of Iran is desert and semi-desert. Due to the location of the Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges, about one third of its land is mountainous and two small parts are plains. Our Iran has 13 reserves
It has biosphere which includes Arasbaran, Arjan, GNU, Golestan National Park, Mangrove Protected Area and Khor Khoran International Wetland, Kavir National Park, Urmia Lake National Park, Miankaleh Peninsula, Turan Protected Area, Dena, Tang Sayad, Lake Hamun and Kopeh get hot. All historians and tourists
They believe that the best example of history, culture and nature in the four seasons of Iran are as beautiful as possible. A country where you can travel from a cold and lush climate to a hot and dry climate in just about an hour without having to spend a lot of money to travel. Due to its rich history, vibrant civilization, diverse culture and vastness. In our country, we see countless and diverse natural, historical, cultural and … attractions in it. Our beautiful land has the best climate of four seasons at the same time in the world and the richest natural minerals. If you are a traveler and tourist, you know that it takes several consecutive years to see and travel to different parts of Iran. Many travel writers and tourists search in a province of our country for months and years, and in the end , They believe that they have not yet discovered all the sights of the province. From the past to the present and in the pages of the book of rich Iranian culture, traveling and seeing the unseen has been recommended to all people. Travel brings joy to the human soul and body, but despite the existence of this rich culture and the beautiful sense of patriotism that waves among us Iranians, many parts of Iran are still unknown. So I decided to remind you of some of the sights of our land and give them brief explanations. The existence of hundreds of registered and unregistered historical monuments and collections proves that Iran seems to have been a diary of history. Iran is the first registered human society and has the first written civil law. We hope that with increasing knowledge of our country, our self-confidence will increase and we will be more proud of our country.
In this e-book, I have tried to provide information, albeit brief, about a hundred lovely and beautiful places in our beloved country of Iran without any prioritization. The collection that is presented to you dear ones is the result of attending, searching, reviewing sources, documents and points that have been tried to ensure their authenticity. Is. firstname.lastname@example.org. Offering suggestions and tips that complete the collection via email You do not have the right to change the contents of this e-book and sell it. But you can submit it on your site for free download, you can
Give it to Iran tourism enthusiasts and those you love. All material and intellectual rights of this work belong to the author, and republishing and using the material without tampering with the author’s name is not only permissible, but also commendable and thankful. As usual, this work to my dearest wife and children, who Their presence and companionship has made the moment of life (especially travel) sweet and bearable.
UNESCO World Heritage Site
UNESCO World Heritage is the name of an international treaty ratified by the General Conference of UNESCO on November 16, 1972. Its subject matter is the preservation of historical, natural and cultural monuments of human beings that are of global importance and belong to all human beings on earth, regardless of race, religion and nationality. Nominate your country’s cultural candidate for World Heritage. The protection of these works after registration, while remaining within the jurisdiction of the country concerned, will be the responsibility of all member states. UNESCO World Heritage Sites are places such as forests, mountains, ponds, deserts, tombs, buildings, complexes or cities, where each country can only apply for one candidate for UNESCO World Heritage List each year. The UNESCO World Heritage List in Iran includes 24 historical and cultural sites that have been registered in the UNESCO World Heritage. This list includes 22 items of cultural heritage and 2 works of natural heritage. Bam Citadel and its cultural space were among the places in danger of extinction, but were removed from the list at the 2013 meeting held from June 16 to 27.
Bam Citadel of Iran was severely damaged after the earthquake in Bam and has been on the list of endangered monuments ever since, but due to repairs carried out over the past years, UNESCO removed Bam Citadel from the list of endangered monuments. . Iran acceded to the UNESCO World Heritage Convention on Wednesday, February 26, 1975, three years after the ratification of the UNESCO General Conference on Persepolis. In 1979, Choghaznabil was one of the first places in Iran to be added to the UNESCO World Heritage List by criteria (VI, I, V and Naghsh Jahan Square with criteria (I, III, VI) in addition to the places registered so far. Places such as Naghsh-e-Rostam, Naghsh-e-Rajab, Taq-e-Bostan, Damavand, the historical city of Masouleh, Alamut Cultural Landscape, Golestan National Park, Arasbaran Protected Area, Sabalan Mountain, Hegmataneh, Kaboud Mosque and are also proposed for UNESCO World Heritage At present, 49 Iranian works are in the UNESCO World Heritage List, while Iran has the capacity to register up to 2,000 works as a “historic city of Yazd” after 9 years. Historical of Yazd in the list of temporary world heritage, on Sunday (18th, the second historical city of Iran (after Bam) and the 22nd historical monument of the country, as one of the first brick cities in the world was registered in the 41st meeting of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.
Ways of access: Access to Choghaznabil is possible from two routes. The route that deviates from Ahvaz-Shousha road to Haft Tappeh Then it extends to Choghaznabil. Also from Shushtar route to Karun agro-industry which extends to Choghaznabil.
Choghaznabil today is an ancient, 4,000-year-old shrine built by the Elamites in the Ziggurat Dūr Untash, around 1250 BC. Choghaznabil is a remnant of the city of Duravantash and is located in Khuzestan province. This structure was the first historical monument from Iran in 1979, which was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The international community values it exceptionally and universally. Orientalists consider Choghaznabil to be the first religious building in Iran. This structure is located 40 km southeast of the ancient city of Shousha and 35 km west of the ancient city of Shushtar, but due to its location in the west of the Dez River, the border between the two cities is divided into country divisions and Zanbil also means basket. Because this place is considered the city of Shush before “Chagha”. The locals used to dig unnatural hills in the language, Zigurat was in the shape of an inverted basket, it was called Choghaznabil. The word Choghaznabil in the Lori language means “basket hill”. The Sumerian ziggurat means a multi-storey, stepped temple. This shrine was built by Ontash Napirish (c. 1250 BC), the great king of ancient Elam, in praise of the god Inshushinak. , The guardian goddess of the ancient city of Susa, is made; And in the attack of the Assyrian army, Banipal was destroyed along with the Elamite civilization. In 1890, the famous geologist Jacques de Morgan reported that there were oil fields in the Choghaznabil area. It seems that the Iranian Oil Company was founded in 1936 following the New Zealand expert of the British-Iranian Oil Company, Boraven Brown. It was first discovered by AD and excavated by Roman Gershman from 1953 to 1963. Fifty years later, engineers engaged in oil activities in Choghaznabil found a brick with inscriptions on it. The bricks were sent to archaeologists excavating in Susa, and then a series of excavations were carried out in Choghaznabil, which led to the discovery of the Choghaznabil Temple and other important artifacts. The initial height of the ziggurat is 52 meters and the 5 floors are 105.20 meters, which is twice × 105 ×. Today, its height is 25 meters and only 2 and a half floors of it remain. The foundation of Choghaznabil is a square of 20, a football field. They are built parallel to each other and from the ground. Except for the first and fifth floors, which were hollow and had room-shaped extensions, the rest of the floors were solid and filled with clay. The interior texture of the walls is made of clay and the exterior is made of brick. Some of the bricks used in the ziggurat are glazed and others have stud-shaped decorations that are among the oldest tiles in the world. All around the ziggurat, bricks with Elamite cuneiform can be seen that the written lines show the name of the builder and the purpose of its construction. On the northwestern and southwestern fronts, two circular platforms can be seen, about which different opinions have been expressed, including the altar platform, the place of installation of the statue, the sundial, the place of divination, and astronomy. Choghaznabil water treatment plant is located on the western front of the main temple. This treatment plant was built using related vessels and is therefore the oldest treatment plant in the world. The refinery is supplied from a distance of 45 km by a canal from Karkheh river. Choghaznabil temple and its big city (Duravantash) like many other cities of Ilam, in 645 AH. It was destroyed by the Assyrians under the leadership of (Assyrian Paul). In the main area of Choghaznabil, there are three brick buildings that are built in a circular shape, and the information obtained indicates that they are something like a sundial. Of these three buildings, only one of them has survived to some extent. It is mentioned that these buildings were the basis for the sculptures that existed on the four sides of Choghaznabil, but with a little care it can be understood that they were used to identify time. Together, these buildings formed a single complex, in fact, an observatory or solar calendar to calculate the year and the calendar and extract the calendar or identify the first and middle days of each season or the spring and autumn equinoxes, as well as determine the autumn revolutions and It has been winter. The variation between the angles of the sun visors is equal to the variation of the angle of the sunrise at the beginning of each season of the year. In fact, the sun visors were used to detect shadows at sunrise and sunset. They are also made and molded especially for this purpose and have an octagonal shape. During the excavations, archaeologists have managed to find a lithograph that dates back to the Elamite period and belongs to Ontash Napirisha. There is also an interesting image on this petroglyph, a picture of a woman with a fish tail holding snakes. This valuable historical monument and monument of Iranian culture and history, which represents the civilization of several thousand years of Iran, like many other historical monuments is not kept in Iran and is in the Louvre Museum in France. It is better in spring and autumn Travel here.
Persepolis , Parseh
Access roads: Persepolis is located in Fars province, about 10 km north of Marvdasht and 57 km from Shiraz.
In Greek it means “Persepolis” because it was attributed to the state of Persia. The Greeks called it “the city of the Persians” the name of Persepolis at the time of construction, Parseh means They called. The mentioned Greek word is reflected in most European languages today. During the Sassanid period to Persepolis Sudstone (one hundred “city gamers”) Or the royal palace of Jamshid is called the mythical king of Iran. French tourist tavern, which was called the “column” in “Persepolis”. In contemporary Persian this building remembers. Hundreds of years after the invasion of Alexander and the Arabs and when the memory and “forty minarets” of the Safavid era traveled to Iran several times, from Persepolis called The memory of the Achaemenid kings was forgotten, people passing by the ruins of Parseh, saw engraved images of the throne that It has been raised on the hands of the people, and since they could not read the cuneiform of the inscriptions engraved on the stones, they thought that this was the same color It is Jamshid that Ferdowsi mentioned in his Shahnameh. That is why this place was named Persepolis. Later, archaeologists They were able to translate the cuneiform inscription, realizing that the original name was Parseh. In the Islamic period, this place was respected and it is considered a thousand They were called columns and forty minarets and were associated with figures such as Suleiman the Prophet and Jamshid. The construction of Persepolis in 500 BC in The western slope of Mount Rahmat or Mitra or Mehr began in the time of Darius the Great and then continued by his successors with changes in its original structure. On The basis of the clay inscriptions discovered in Persepolis in the construction of this magnificent building of countless architects, artists, craftsmen, workers, men and women There were companies that, in addition to receiving salaries, also benefited from labor insurance benefits. Construction of this large and beautiful collection according to a 120-year-old tradition Consequence One of the architectural arts in Persepolis is the ratio of the height of the doors to their width and also the ratio of the height of the columns to the distance between the two The column is the golden ratio. The golden ratio is an important ratio in geometry that exists in nature. This represents the art of the ancient Iranians in architecture.
The first scientific excavations in Persepolis were carried out by the German Ernst Emil Hertzfeld in 1931 under the supervision of Reza Shah. By the Institute of Oriental Studies
Was sent to the University of Chicago. His findings are still kept at the institute. Over time, a number of pillars of the palace gate are a hundred columns in Persepolis has survived events such as earthquakes. They look cohesive at first glance, but in reality they are fragmented They are also riding. The secret of their stability against earthquakes is at the junction of these pieces, where the two pieces of the column are connected by molten lead.
In addition to strengthening the connection of two columns, this lead has played an important role in the structure’s resistance to earthquakes. Lead, malleable and soft metal Is that it does not react when an earthquake occurs and it does not break, this is the role that spring plays in modern and modern buildings.
The columns are placed. The architects and artists who were involved in the construction of Persepolis decorated the roles in three ways. Paste one Precious metals in the form of crowns, earrings, collars, yards and the like to the original role and by holes in both sides of the object to be jeweled They do. Second, painting and silvering the main decorations of clothes, crowns and hats with needles, in a very delicate way, the example of which is on the doors of Darius Palace (Thatcher) and There is a harem. The third is painting, examples of which are available in the three-door palace and one hundred columns. He used mortar to stack the stones Not, but the two overlapping surfaces were shaved so that they were smooth and mounted well on top of each other, only the middle part of the two The surface is left to grind so that both surfaces stick well together. The act of joining was done in several ways, one was a lock and a pair, which was part of They made one boulder stand out and made a similar hole in the other boulder and glued the two stones together, but the way more It was used to make two similar and similar holes in two adjacent stones and tie them together with an iron rod and lead on it.
Melt was poured and polished, these fasteners were made in the form of swallows’ tails, cylinders, pens and heads. Full width of Persepolis palaces 125
It is one thousand square meters. Persepolis has two gates, one to the east and the other to the south. This building includes the palaces: Apadana – Thatcher – Hadish – Queen – H.
Or the Edge – three percent of the pillars – is the royal council and treasury. In the lithographs of Persepolis, no one can be seen in a state of humiliation or humiliation, and the representatives of the nations are not as losers or slaves, but all equally members of the great world community, and all nations from the Medes to the Indians, Tunisians, Africans. And the Greeks are all portrayed as independent and self-reliant personalities. In the lithographs of Persepolis, there are inscriptions that do not belong to the Achaemenid period. Az-Dawla Dailami left two inscriptions in Kufic script and other inscriptions in Arabic and Persian from later centuries and other historical figures remain there. The last of which is related to the late Qajar period. The complex of Persepolis palaces was set on fire by Alexander the Great in the year (330 BC) and all its buildings were destroyed. This historical place has been one of the monuments since 1979. Iran is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Achaemenid Museum building in Persepolis is the oldest building in Iran that was restored and turned into a museum.
Dedicated. After the Iranian Revolution of 1978, some extremists tried to destroy Persepolis by attacking Persepolis, but failed due to the opposition and resistance of local officials and people. The best season to travel here is spring.
Naghsh Jahan Square
Access roads: Central Square of Isfahan
Naghsh Jahan Square is also known by the historical name of Shah Square and after the Iranian Revolution of 1978 with the official name of Imam Square, the central square of Isfahan, which is located in the heart of the historical complex of Naghsh Jahan. Other names mentioned for Naghsh Jahan Square are: Square, Great Square, Main City Square, New Square, Palace Square, Royal Square, Great Shahi Square. The historical monuments on the four sides of Naghsh Jahan Square include Aali Qapo, Shah Mosque (Imam Mosque), Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque and Qaisaria Gate, which is the main entrance of Isfahan Bazaar. In addition to this building, there are two hundred two-story rooms around the square, which are generally the place of supply of Isfahan handicrafts. Before the city of Isfahan was chosen as the capital of Safavid Iran, this garden was also the site of government buildings and the palace of the Timurid rulers, and there was a large garden square called “Naghsh Jahan”. This section was on the western side of Naghsh Jahan Square today and on the site of the construction of the great palace “in Kushk”, Aq Quyunluha. At that time it was the field part of the garden. Kushk Square was the execution site of “Kushk” Qapo. During the Seljuk period, at least part of Naghsh-e Jahan Garden was called the Square of Sentenced to Execution and some official rituals such as Nowruz celebration. From the beginning of the reign of Shah Abbas I, the surface of the square has been leveled in a much larger size than the former Kushkak Square and the ritual of lighting and fireworks has been held in it many times. It is known that Professor Mohammad Reza and Professor Ali Akbar Isfahani are the names of two architects who designed the square and built it in its current form. The names of these two architects can be seen on the entrances of the buildings around the square. Sheikh Baha’i has also been in charge of designing and supervising the construction of the surrounding buildings. All in all, this type of square design, which is called the Iranian square and is a link between the bazaar, the government center and the religious place (mosque), before Naghsh Jahan square in Isfahan in the old square or the same old that The main pattern of Naghsh-e Jahan square and the oldest example of this type of square is in Yazd in Amirchakhmaq square, in Qazvin in Shah square and in Tabriz in Saheb Abad square. This square was one of the largest squares in the world in the 11th century AH (17th century AD). The French knight Jean Chardin considered Naghsh Jahan Square to be the most beautiful square in the world. During the reign of Shah Abbas the Great and his successors, this square was a place for polo games, army parades, lighting, and various shows during the days of royal celebrations, and on other days it was a place for people to walk and shop. Two polo stone gates. It is still on the field from that period, which tells the story of playing polo in that period and is the oldest polo gate in the world. The design of the field has had such an impact on the way polo is played that Harlingham and other popular polo fields have been built more or less on the field.
The square was also the site of massive Friday markets. One of the first official ceremonies held in this square was the triumphant return of Imam Qoli Khan from the conquest of Hormoz Island to the capital (Isfahan). Chardin reports that up to 50,000 lights were lit in the square during the festivities. Detailed description of this square has been given by famous European tourists such as Knight Chardin, Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, Pietro Delavalle, Sanson, Engelbert Kempfer and others who have visited Isfahan since the Safavid era and all of them have praised the beauty of the square . After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, this
The square is also a place for Friday prayers and political gatherings. Apart from the existing buildings, there are other monuments in Naghsh Jahan Square
Have gradually lost their use and have disappeared. Marble capitals that probably came to Isfahan from Persepolis Shiraz
(Today one has been moved to Chehelston and the other is in the Museum of Ancient Iran in Tehran), 110 Spanish cannons (booty conquered the island of Hormuz by Imam Qoli Khan), a forty meter high bar in the center of the square (which today is completely out Gone) and also a building in which a European clock was installed. Also near the Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque, there was a school called Khajeh Malek School (later Sheikh Lotfollah School) which was destroyed during the Qajar period. During the Qajar period, the square and its surroundings were destroyed and destroyed, but during the Pahlavi period, all the buildings around the square were completely repaired and rebuilt. To date, the reconstruction and repair of this building is done continuously. Naghsh Jahan Square was registered in the list of national monuments of Iran on February 29, 1963. Naghsh Jahan Square was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in May 1979. If you visit Isfahan, do not forget to visit the following places: Sheikh Lotfollah Shah Juma Mosque, Chehel Soton, Aali Qapo, Khajoo Bridge Thirty-three bridges, Caesarea Bazaar, Atashgah, Minar Janban, Atiq Square, Jarchi Bath, Sheikh Baha’i Bath, Sheikh Baha’i House, Wooden Bridge, Marnan Bridge, Tohid Khaneh, Sarviyeh Castle, Hasht Behesht Palace, Wang Church and Neighborhood, Minaret Qoshkhaneh, Minaret in Al-Ziafeh, Sarban Minaret, Ali Minaret, Asarkhaneh, Constitutional House, Ashraf Hall, Pigeon House, Sofeh Mountain, Bird Garden, Isfahan Aquarium, Flower Garden, Butterfly Museum Garden, Reptile Garden, Niasaram Material, Water Museum, Tomb Saeb Tabrizi, Badie House,
Najwan Park, Forty Girls Minaret, Rakib Khaneh Mansion, Tomb of Khajeh Nizam-ol-Molk, Abbasi Caravanserai, Malabashi House, Amin Al-Tajjar House, Bakhredi House, Dehdashti House, Qazvinis House, Haghighi House, Sheikh Dar-ol-Salam House, Kianpour House, Vasegh Ansari House, Shahshahani House, Sukias House, His Excellency House, Dr. Alam House, Chaharbagh School, etc.
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