One hundred places to see in Iran

Iranian UNESCO World Heritage Site

Part B

 Bam  Citadel

Access roads: Bam Citadel is located in the northeast of Bam city in Kerman. Bam citadel is connected to Bam river from the north, to the old glacier from the east and part of the remains of Rasool mosque and gate gardens, and from the south to the newly built citadel park and part of Hafezabad neighborhood and from the west to the neighborhood The tomb of Khajeh Murad is connected.

Bam Citadel is the largest brick building in the world, which is located in the highest point of Bam city in terms of military and security. There is disagreement about the time of formation of the historic Bam Citadel. It is related to the Achaemenid period or even to the Parthian period. But most of the buildings that were erected before the earthquake are attributed to the Timurid period to Qajar. Parts such as the porches of mosques with different scales and sizes are older (such as the fourth century of the Samanid period to the seventh century AH in the Seljuk period) remembers. Apparently, Bam citadel became uninhabited during the Qajar period. Of course, there are doubts in this issue. Bam citadel includes the old city and the nearby castle, which has an area of ​​about 20 hectares, and the area of ​​the citadel and the nearby castle is about six. It reaches one thousand hectares. The upper part also includes Nishin Citadel and the supplementary military command, and its buildings face the castle. This organ includes various architectural forms such as fence walls, towers and bar, various gates, mosque, bazaar, pit, caravanserai, school, bath, zurkhaneh and residential neighborhoods with aristocratic and poor houses, the governorate with stables, factory, The house of the commander of the tribal forces and the ruling district also has a government, a four-story mansion and a spectacular tower. Regarding the time of formation of the historical citadel of Bam, there are differences of opinion that are related to the Achaemenid period or even the Parthian period. But most of the buildings affected by the earthquake date back to the Timurid to Qajar periods.

Parts such as the porches of mosques with different scales and sizes are older (such as the 4th century related to the Samanids to the 7th century AH in the Seljuk period). Apparently in the Qajar period the citadel of Bam was uninhabited, there are doubts in this regard. has it. In the earthquake of December 26, 2003, the citadel of Bam was completely destroyed.

The reconstruction project of Bam Citadel was completed in 2011 with the cooperation of Iranian and Italian experts. France helped the project by preparing a map of Bam Citadel and the World Bank by providing a large amount of money. After the earthquake, due to the severe destruction of Bam Citadel, UNESCO put it on the list of endangered monuments, but after its reconstruction in 1392, it removed it from the list of endangered monuments and monuments. Bam Citadel is registered in the UNESCO list of cultural heritage.

This monument is located on the Silk Road and was built in the 5th century BC and was used until 1850 AD. The whole building is a large fortress in the center of which is the citadel of Bam, but due to the greatness and majesty of the citadel, which is located in the highest part of the complex, the whole building is called the citadel of Bam citadel. The area of ​​this historical place is about 180,000 square meters, which is surrounded by walls of 6 to 7 meters and a length of 1815 meters. This citadel consists of two separate parts, each of which has unique features. There are about 67 towers in this ancient complex of Bam. Some houses have private bathrooms and some have stables separate from the living area. A number of citadel houses were built on two floors, regardless of the strength of the columns. The people of Bam Citadel had shuffles such as agriculture and carpet weaving. From the second gate of this citadel, the ruling part of the citadel can be seen, which is located on top of a mountain. The water tank and wells were located next to the animal stables. It had an entrance whose entrance arch is comparable to the arches of the Sassanid period. The other gate is on the north side, known as Kat Kadam, which was not used much and was closed shortly after the construction of the fence. Bam Citadel has a main road from the southern part to the ruler and has two passages in its direction and the eastern and western parts. In the third gate were the buildings of military commanders. The windmill, which has been in Bam citadel since the Qajar period, is located in the southwestern part of the castle. The ruling part has 2 buildings with 4 seasons and

The ruling house was a central watchtower, bath, pool and well. No animals or humans could enter the city when the entrance gates were closed. The inhabitants of the city could live for a long time through water wells, gardens and domestic animals inside the citadel. The city was guarded by soldiers and high walls and towers. This complex consists of several parts: the government part is located in the innermost wall and has a military fortress, a 4-season mansion, a barracks, a water well with a depth of about 40 meters and stables with a capacity of 200 horses. The suburban area, which is located around the government section and includes the main entrance of the city, the main route connecting the entrance of the city to the fort and the bazaar, and then there are about 400 houses and public buildings such as schools and sports venues. There are 3 types of houses in this collection that we will examine. 1- Houses with 2 or 3 rooms 4 rooms for middle class families, even some of these houses were porches – were allocated for poorer and weaker families 2- Houses with 3 rooms were also 3- Better houses And more aristocratic with more rooms with a large courtyard and a nearby stable for animals. These houses were built in different places due to different seasons of the year. Like the house of the Jews and the Sistanis. All the houses are made of clay and Bam Citadel was one of the largest mud and clay complexes in the world before the earthquake. The best time to visit here is during the non-warm seasons.

Thakht-e Soleiman

Access roads: 45 km northeast of Takab, West Azerbaijan

Although this statement is not accepted by all scholars, but one of the places that is speculated to be the birthplace of Zoroaster, is the city of Shiz (also called Ganjak) which is said to be in Azerbaijan and here. An ancient site that has hosted the structure since 1600 years ago. There were holy shrines among their fences.

Bahram V of Sassanid established this area as a city and 70 years after him, Ghobad I expanded its buildings until it reached its peak of greatness during the time of Khosrow Anushirvan Sassanid. Discovery of signs and remains of human presence from the first millennium BC. Milad until the 11th century AH in this area of ​​12 hectares has revealed the mysteries of the city to experts. Takht-e Soleiman is considered by many to be the birthplace of Zoroaster and the construction of the Azargashnesb fire temple in this area as the most important temple respected by Zoroastrian Iranians during the Sassanid era can be a seal of approval for this belief. This fire temple played an important role in the socio-political life of the Sassanids and its eternal flames were not extinguished for seven centuries to be considered as a symbol of the authority of Zoroastrianism. On the other hand, some believe that this city was the place where the Holy Grail of Jesus Christ was kept, which he drank from in the last evening of his life. This cup is known as the Grail Cup. Popular belief also considers this city as the residence of Suleiman the Prophet and points to the fact that extraterrestrial forces have built huge structures there by the order of Suleiman that man can not afford to build them. Due to the remnants of urban life And human remains, the remaining structures in this area include the perimeter fence, Sassanid and patriarchal gates, Azar Gashnesb fire temple, Anahita temple and the western porch known as Khosrow porch, except for the city full of treasure at the bottom of the lake. Buried The amazing structure of this natural phenomenon is also very thought-provoking. Takht-e-Soliman turquoise lake is actually a boiling spring (Artzin spring) that supplies its water from the depths of the earth. The length and width of the lake are 110 and 80 meters, respectively, and it is formed as an irregular oval

Is. The interesting thing about this lake is that it never overflows and if they open the water flow, the volume of water will not decrease, so Takht-e-Soliman Lake is considered to be a magical lake that has many unknowns. And say that it has a lot of sediment and arsenic and therefore it is not possible to use it in agriculture and irrigation of the surrounding lands. The depth of this lake is up to 120 meters, but so far no one has been able to dive more than 40 meters. It has its own energy and tourists who believe that this is one of the chakras of the earth and is an energy source. This lake and the surrounding buildings are known as the Throne of Solomon. This name is almost a new name and this area has been called by other names throughout history. Ganzak or Kanzak, Ganjak, Ganzeh, Jess, Jenzeh, Ganjeh, Gzan and Gang were among the names of this collection. This ancient collection was called Gonzka or Kadza in Armenian, Gandzak or Ganjg in Syriac, Gonzka, Gadzaka and Gadza in Greek, Jazn, Jaznag and Shiz in Arabic, Chichest in Shahnameh, Chest in Avesta, and Storig in Mongolian. Today, only the name of the Throne of Solomon remains and everyone knows it by this name. The reason for this may be the belief in the life of Solomon and the construction of this place by him, but the more probable reason is that at the time of the Arab invasion in order to prevent the destruction of this complex, which was related to the religion of Zoroaster, it was named Have put. As stated in history, at the time of the Arab invasion, they destroyed structures related to other religions

they took. The first scene that dazzles the eye in facing this unique complex is the huge fence of the Sassanid period, which with a defensive appearance of 120.1 km long and about 80.3 m wide in an oval shape, surrounds the whole complex and the holy lake. While the main core of the walls is made of stone carcass and mortar, the outer covering of the fence is decorated with large carved stones. This fence is 13 meters high and the healthiest part of it remains on the western and southwestern front, part of which has just been restored to its original form. The relevant fence has 38 arched towers on the outer front and has two gates. Azargashnesb fire temple is located on the northern side of the lake and has a four-arched view in which the fire altar is located and corridors for worship ceremonies surround it. On the northwest side, there is a tall and magnificent Sassanid porch known as Khosrow porch, which is made of red brick and mortar. The only remaining walls are still considered as the index of this complex. The best time to visit here is the non-cold seasons of the year.


Access roads: From Shiraz to Isfahan, drive to Saadat city and cross the side road to the village. From here, after about 4 km, you will reach Pasargad. This route is about 130 km.

Pasargadae World Heritage Site is a collection of ancient structures left over from the Achaemenid period. Shahi is the tomb of Cambyses, Tal Takht defense structures, Mozaffari caravanserai, the holy site and Bolaghi Strait. Pasargad is located in a high plain at an altitude of 1900 meters above sea level, in a mountain fence. In the seventh lunar century, Atabaki built a mosque near the tomb of Cyrus the Great, in which the stone of the palaces was used. On the occasion of the 2500th anniversary of the Persian Empire in 1971, these stones were returned to their original places. The residence palace undoubtedly shows the influence and role of Greek architecture. It seems that when Cyrus conquered Sard (the capital of Lydia, a city in present-day western Turkey) in 545 BC, he was greatly influenced by the marble buildings of the Lydian kings. He may have employed a number of Lydian teachers in Pasargadae at the same time. In the palace, the attractive fit of dark and light marbles, especially at the bases, attracts attention. These rocks have been brought from around the city of Marvdasht. According to archeological researches, the Pasargad region dates back to the Middle Paleolithic period. But the most significant cultural period of Pasargad plain is the Achaemenid period. Based on the available evidence, Pasargad was named for the first time in the period

Achaemenid is considered to be a plain that Cyrus the Great chose as his command center and built buildings and palaces in it. The historical-cultural complex of Pasargadae includes the tomb of Cyrus the Great, gate palaces, public, private And the stone tower of the fortress fire temple, flat. The royal garden is a bridge and a sacred grounds. In the Islamic period, due to the greatness of the stones used in these complexes, its buildings have been attributed to Suleiman the Prophet, and Pasargadae itself became known as Mashhad Umm al-Nabi or Mashhad, the mother of Suleiman. This valuable collection was registered on July 7, 2004 as the fifth work of Iran in the list of world works (UNESCO). The ancient city of Pasargadae, the first capital of the Achaemenid Empire in the heart of the province, indicates the location of the city. The city is located by Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II) in the century of the “Persian camp” of Persia, on the plain of the river Pulvar. The name of the sixth city was made in BC. Main grounds (160 hectares, surrounded and protected by a large natural area). The main site includes these monuments: the tomb of Cyrus the Great in the south; Throne of Solomon (Throne of Solomon) and fortifications, located on a hill north of the main site; The royal complex in the center of the main courtyard, including the remains: the gate building of the public hall of the palace, and the royal garden (four gardens). North of the Royal Complex

Suleiman Prison is located, a stone tower, about 14 meters high. The date of construction of this building is not known. The main site includes the excavated area, but the ancient capital is a much larger area than this area and has not yet been excavated. There are other remnants in the surrounding enclosure:

530 BC), and the sites of Tal Nokhodi, Tal Khari, Tal Se Asyab, Dutlan, some of which belong to the prehistoric-sacred area (about 550 BC, as well as the school or caravanserai (14th century AD). Part of the Pasargadae complex is the tomb of Cyrus the Great, formerly known as the tomb of Cyrus the Great in 1820, after archaeological research, and as the “Mashhad of Solomon’s mother” a gem in the middle of the plain. This tomb is made of white limestone around 530 to 540 BC The tomb is located between the royal gardens and is made of large stones, some of which are up to seven meters long. The tombstones were interconnected by metal clamps known as swallowtail clamps, which were later dug up and removed, and are now replaced by holes, most of which have been rebuilt. It has a well-known section: a 6-step platform, the base of which is a rectangular square with an area of ​​165 square meters, 5 meters. And the thickness of its walls is 1 /. A small four-point wall with a width of 7 points is the shape of a simple attic with a small entrance to the west. On the slope of the roof of the tomb there are two large holes to lighten

Stones have been created and the load on the roof has been reduced, and some have unknowingly considered the place where Cyrus and his wife’s body were kept. Valuable items of his kingdom and war were placed next to him. According to the archaeologists of Alexander’s time, when Alexander came to Pasargadae and visited the tomb of Cyrus in the middle of a large garden, inside the tomb was a golden coffin, a table and some golden utensils and expensive weapons and clothes of Cyrus and all the jewels that once He held it in his hand or hung it and watched. The tomb was guarded by a number of Magi at the time, but was looted during Alexander’s reign and all his valuables were stolen. The best time to travel here is the non-warm seasons of the year, especially May.


Soltanieh Dome

Access roads: Move from Tehran to Qazvin, if you have chosen the old road, you must cross the vineyard to reach Zanjan and then to Soltanieh, which is located 36 km from Zanjan. If your chosen route is Qazvin-Zanjan highway, you should enter the old road using the exit signs and continue the route as mentioned. Gonbad Soltanieh with a branch from the main road and within 5 km of the side road among the surrounding plains Shows himself to you on Aribad Street in Soltanieh

The city of Zanjan was the capital of the Mongol Ilkhanate and this dome was built in 703 AH by the order of Al-Jaito or Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh who was the ruler of the time. Was. The dome will be erected by an architect named Seyyed Ali Shah with 3,000 workers over a period of ten years. After the construction of the building, the decoration of the building will begin and it will take three years. 1302 to 1312 AD was built by his order in the city of Soltanieh (capital of the Mongol Ilkhanids) and is considered one of the most important works of Iranian and Islamic architecture. It also has eight minarets around the dome; And the oldest double-covered dome is available in 25 meters in / 48 meters and the diameter of its inner opening is 5 / in Iran. The color of the dome is blue. A tall dome is placed on these sides. The height of the building is 5 upper parts of the building, surrounded by rooms and pavilions. The dome itself is covered with turquoise tiles and the ceiling inside the upper rooms is decorated with colorful plaster and bricks. In the margins of the arches, Quranic verses and Isma’ullah are written in bold. Engravings can also be seen on the bricks of the walls and colored ceilings of the building. The building includes two periods of decoration. The first round was the decoration of bricks and tiles, through which verses from the Quran, the names of Allah, Muhammad, Ali, and the name of the Sultan were written, but after some time, for some unknown reason, Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh ordered the tiles to be covered with plaster. The dome of this building is the third largest dome in the world after the dome of the church of Santa Maria del Fiore, and the dome of the Hagia Sophia, and of course, it is taller than the dome of Soltanieh in terms of height. Some historians have written that Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh built this huge dome and building that the bodies of the first Imams and

Third, to transfer the Shiites, namely Imam Ali (as) and Imam Hussein (as) from their tombs; But due to the opposition of the ulema and the dream he had, he stopped doing this. The 110 steps in the building are in alphabetical order synonymous with the name of Imam Ali and express the devotion of Sultan Muhammad to this Imam. There are nesting corridors in the crypt of this building, which is estimated to have been used for special ceremonies . The sultan had ordered him to be buried in the crypt. Al-Jaito died of an illness two years after the completion of the dome at the age of 34. The crypt is the sultan’s burial ground, but some historians have written that the sultan was somewhere other than the crypt It is even speculated that Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh converted from Islam after a while and returned to his origin and became a shaman, and these corridors and spaces were used for special religious ceremonies after his death. Of course, his body was also used. Instead of being buried in the crypt, it is buried in the surrounding mountains. It is said that this dome was modeled on the construction of the great dome of Florence. This building consists of 8 porches and 8 minarets, which are said to be modeled on 8 in heaven (gates of goodness or doors of goodness). The building includes two periods of decoration. The first round was the decoration of bricks and tiles, through which verses from the Quran and the name of Allah, Muhammad, Ali and the name of the Sultan were written through bricks and tiles, but

After some time, for some unknown reason, Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh ordered the tiles to be decorated with plaster. The dome of Soltanieh consists of three main parts: the entrance, the tomb and the crypt. Sultan al-Jaito, after despairing of transferring the body of Amir al-Mu’minin, transferred some of the soil of Najaf and Karbala to Soltanieh and used it to build a part of the dome known as the Torbatkhaneh. Of course, the inscriptions on the dome and the sundial are also significant.

The extraordinary skylights of Soltanieh dome amaze any viewer. Some skylights of this building have been compared to sundials and this sundial has been used in religious ceremonies. If light shines through the hole of the main dome, it is the time of the call to prayer and the light that shines from large windows shows the clock and the window light. Displays small minutes, about a minute. Accordingly, it is said that the building is octagonal for this reason. The building has been restored several times in different periods. One of the wonders of this building is the weight of the dome, which after 700 years of its life and bearing a weight of nearly 1600 tons has not been damaged and has sat only about 8 cm. The bed of this building is composed of compacted sand layers with a depth of approximately 8 to 10 meters and has a very good resistance. In the Safavid and Qajar periods, repairs were made on this building, but the main restoration of the dome from 1348 to about forty years later. It has continued and despite the long period of reconstruction of this building, unfortunately the process of destruction and falling of tiles has continued and in some cases there is a dichroism in the color of turquoise tiles. Inside the space of the dome and below it, scaffolding can be seen that was installed by the Italian dome restoration team and it still exists there without any fundamental change in the restoration.. Outside the dome, there is a small museum with photographs and objects to visit. Gonbad Soltanieh was registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2005. best time

Travel is the non-cold seasons of the year.

Bistoon inscription

Access roads: Harsin city, 30 km from Kermanshah, is located on the slopes of Bistoon mountain. have been. This historical site occupies an area of ​​1650 hectares. The main work of this archeological site is an embossed and cuneiform inscription and by the order of Darius I of the Achaemenid dynasty, when he reached the throne of the Persian Empire around 521 BC. Was made. This inscription is the only work of the Achaemenids that has been documented about the Achaemenid dynasty and the control of internal revolts by Darius I and the explanation that the suffix of the place “Stan” means God and the exact “Bagh” of this event. Biston was originally called Baghdad; It is composed of two words meaning the place and land and on top of each other it means the place of the gods. In this inscription, Dariush Shah wrote the description of his conquests in cuneiform in three languages: ancient Persian, Elamite and Babylonian. The greatness of this inscription is such that only the ancient Persian language has 414 lines. In this inscription, in addition to describing his conquests, Darius Shah mentioned Ahura Mazda, the god of goodness, and invited people to speak the truth and do good deeds. The Bistoon inscription on the slopes of Parva Mountain and limestone bristles have been created, which appear to be the effects of brown glaze-like color after being combined with the oxidized particles of lime, as well as the lead residues seen in the first few lines of the work. At the end of the work, to increase the life of the effect, the whole facade is covered with an unknown coating. The total height of the inscription is 7 meters and 80 centimeters and its length is 22 meters and in the center there are 5 columns with ancient Persian cuneiform. Each of the first 4 columns is slightly less than 2 meters wide and 4 meters high.

Ancient Persian text has a total of 525 lines. On the five mentioned pillars, Ahuramazda is placed on a raised plate and is flying on all these shapes. Ahuramazda is embodied with a human face and a rectangular beard, and through the light of a very large sun that is shining, has emerged. On his head is a shining crown with horns, which is a sign and symbol of his divinity. Ahuramazda extends his left hand to Darius with a ring and thus performs a ceremony of surrendering the power and dominion of the kingdom to Darius. With his right hand raised, he wishes good luck and blessings to Darius. Darius himself is crowned king. His mustache is curved and his beard is rectangular in the style of the beard of the kings of Assyria, which had ten strands. Darius’s right hand is in a state of prayer and mystery and need for Ahuramazda, and with his left hand he holds a bow. Darius is shown in normal size, ie 180 cm tall. Darius kicked Gaumata with his right foot so that one foot and two hands of Gaumata were raised in supplication. From the left, behind Darius, stand two courtiers with spears and archers with arrows, and each is. These two men are shorter than Darius “Aspatina” and the archer “Gabri” has two long beards. According to Naghsh-e-Rostam’s drawings, the spear is about 150 cm long, but they are taller than the rebel kings whose statue is up to Darius’ chest (120 cm). Immediately behind Gaumata are eight men, eight centimeters taller than Darius in terms of the sharpness of the tip of his helmet. They are all connected by a chain. Some of Biston’s inscriptions were destroyed during World War II when soldiers passed by. In total, these designs have an average height of 3 meters and a length of 48 5 5 meters. The first person to read the Biston inscription was Henry Rollinson, an English officer in the British Indian Army. Parts of this ancient inscription are lost and illegible due to erosion by wind and rain; And also because in a period of Iranian ignorance, its designs and lines were used as a sign of shooting.

Other valuable remains of the Median period in the 8th century BC, the Achaemenids, the Sassanids, the Ilkhanids and the Safavids are now in the Biston area. The Hunters’ Cave and the Markharl Cave date back to the Paleolithic period, and the material shrine is one of the remnants of the Medes, each of which was nationally registered separately in 2001. In the Biston area, a statue of Hercules is placed on a cut stone. It has been dated to the Seleucid period. Parthian works in this collection include the relief of Goodarz II Parthian, the role of Parthian Mithridates or the same statue of Mehrdad II and the lithograph of Blas. The Sassanids in Biston have left many relics and may be said to have played an important role in the development of this collection. Biston Palace is one of these Sassanid monuments that was used as an inn during the reign of other rulers. Other traces of this historical series can be seen in works such as Farhad Tarash, Sassanid Bridge or Khosrow Bridge and Sassanid building. During the Ilkhanid period, an inn was built on the remains of the Sassanid palace, but the earthquake destroyed it all. However, Shah Abbas Safavid built another inn near this site and is now one of the most spectacular parts of the Biston complex. . This site was registered as the national heritage of Iran in 28 works on October 28, 2002 with the number 6463. On January 8, 2005, coinciding with January 10, 2004, UNESCO declared 13 works from the Biston collection as a prominent inscription of Darius the Achaemenid, a valuable work for all the world, and registered it with the number 1222. The best time to travel is spring. is.