One hundred places to see in Iran

Iranian UNESCO World Heritage Site

Part C


Access roads: Shousha city (36 km after Dezful and 115 km before Ahvaz) Taleghani street

The area was 5 square kilometers. The city of Susa is a city in southwestern Iran and one of the oldest cities in the world, the Ilam civilization and the Achaemenid Empire with 6 ancient Susa is the center of Elamite civilization which is located 150 km east of the Tigris River in Khuzestan province. Susa has been the capital since about 2700 BC and this capital lasts until the end of the Achaemenid Empire, which is over 3000 years. French archaeologists made the first excavations in this area during the Qajar period. According to initial estimates, about 400 hectares of this site were designated as the ancient site of Susa, but in the study of archeology, the cultural heritage experts of the ancient site of Susa, in addition to its privacy, increased to 800 hectares. The ancient region of Susa covers a large area of ​​”Apadana” from the entire city of Susa, which houses a wide variety of prehistoric buildings and structures up to the Islamic era. The palace is one of its most magnificent palaces and has a worldwide reputation. The palace of Apadana was built by order of Darius the Great, the Achaemenid king, around 521 to 515 BC in Susa on Elamite relics. The walls of the palace are made of clay and its columns are made of stone. Dariush Palace has different parts such as public bar hall, gate and reception palace and also has three central courtyards. The inner walls of the palace are painted with glazed bricks

The designs of the Immortal Guard soldiers are decorated with winged lions and lotus flowers, the remains of which are kept in foreign and domestic museums. The stone pillars of this palace consist of several parts: the pillar, the base of the pillar, the pillar shawl, the stem of the pillar, the flower of the pillar and the headstone. The head of the column is in the shape of the front half of two cows that are kneeling and back to back. The pillars and walls of Apadana were 22 meters high, but the height of the other parts was less and their roof was made of cradle and made of clay. There is no information about the decorations of the palace, but the floor of many parts is made of red materials. Important parts of the Apadana Palace caught fire during the reign of Ardashir I (461 BC) and were rebuilt during the reign of Ardashir II (359 BC). Apadana was destroyed by Alexander the Great around 320 BC. The first archaeological excavations at the historic site of Susa were started in 1851 by the English Count Leftus. Some time later, the Frenchman Jean and Marcel Diolafue continued his work, and their work developed into French research and exploration in Susa. Because at this time he found valuable relics of “Jean-Marie Jacques de Morgan”. Later, during the Tejarat period, this area was discovered and there was no security to preserve these relics, the French delegation decided to build a place in this historical site to preserve historical relics. In 1898, Jean-Jacques Dumorgan built the castle of Susa from bricks and remnants of the palace of Darius. For this purpose, the tallest selection and a castle in the shape of medieval castles and a trapezoid were built on it. The architecture of Susa Castle is similar to the “Acropolis” point of Susa hills

Many are in the Bastille prison in France. The building of this castle was often built with ancient bricks and remains of bricks and bricks of different periods that remained in the ancient site of Susa and its construction was completed in 1912. This castle is still used as a center for preservation and research of antiquities. Susa Castle, like medieval castles in Europe, consists of two courtyards, the second of which is higher than the first. Below the second yard, there are 2 halls (basement). The materials of the castle are made of clay, but there is a coating of bricks on these bricks, which belong to different historical periods. The architectural elements of Susa Castle include Roman arches, arched gates and brick ornaments that are inspired by Iranian architecture. The main architects of this building were two architects of Dezful. Since 1992, Shousha Castle has been used as a kind of museum and historical objects are kept in it. Susa Castle has a small glass room known as a pergola. Also, the cylindrical tower on the west side of the building is square in shape and was used as a dovecote. The other tower of this building is located in the middle of the courtyard, which is also known as the north tower. The shape of this tower is embedded in a circle. The museum of Susa was opened in 1345 near the castle and the ancient site of Susa.

This museum is one of the most important museums of objects of ancient Iran and has valuable works from different historical periods. We suggest you to visit this museum.

Germany became a world record. “Ben” after reviewing the file of world registration of the ancient site of Susa, this file on July 13, 2015 in the UNESCO meeting in the city of Susa cultural heritage file including Shavar Palace, Apadana, East Gate, Hadish, 15th city, Achaemenid village, Susa Mosque and The complex of buildings of the Islamic period is the Acropolis hills and the French castle. Susa Castle has a piece of Choghaztabil and Darius Palace in its custody. The best time to travel is the non-hot seasons of the year


Iranian Qanat

Access roads: Gonabad, Ferdows, Mehriz, Zarch, Arak, Meymeh, Ardestan, Jopar, Bam and Barvat cities

The aqueduct, invented by the Iranian Muqnian, is thousands of years old. Many of Iran’s aqueducts are more than five or six thousand years old and have a lifespan equal to the ancient history of Iran. Despite the fact that several thousand years have passed since its invention, however, this method of using water is still common in a significant part of the villages and residential and agricultural and livestock areas of the country. An aqueduct was not originally an irrigation technique, but originated entirely from the mining technique, and its purpose was to collect disturbing groundwater (drainage) while digging mines. An aqueduct or canal is a waterway or canal that is underground. Digged up to allow water to flow to reach the ground. This atmosphere or channel is deep underground to connect the wells that originate from the wellhead. Mother wells are usually an underground spring. The aqueduct is where water comes out of the heart of the aqueduct and appears and can be used for irrigation and other purposes. The aqueduct consists of an open mouth and a tunnel-like underground channel and several vertical wells that Connects an underground duct or furnace to the ground at regular intervals. Wells, which are also called rods when drilling, in addition to the channels for transporting drilled material to the outside, also perform the function of underground canal ventilation and are also a communication route for rubbing, repairing and visiting the inside of the aqueduct. River. The digging of the aqueduct usually starts from its appearance which is the surface of the earth and is dry and ends in the water areas of the mother well. The length of an aqueduct, which also affects its flow rate, is different from natural conditions. These conditions depend on the slope of the ground and the depth of the wellhead. On the other hand, the lower the groundwater level, the deeper the mother well. The longest aqueduct ever dug in Iran.

In the vicinity of Gonabad, it is one of the functions of Khorasan, which is 70 km long, and the deepest mother of Iranian aqueducts is 400 meters deep, according to another version, and 350 meters deep, and it belongs to the “Qasbeh” aqueduct in Gonabad. The most important factor that determines the length of the aqueduct is the slope of the ground. The lower the slope, the longer the aqueduct and the steeper the length of the aqueduct. The extraction system in the aqueduct is such that water is removed from the ground without the help and expense only by using gravity. And it costs cheaper. Iran has 36,300 active aqueducts with a total length of 274,000 km. The uniqueness of these aqueducts includes technologies related to their construction, taking into account their unique features, such as the deepest, longest, or oldest aqueduct in Iran. Is. These 11 aqueducts include: Qasbeh Gonabad or Kaykhosrow aqueduct (located in the city of Gonabad and the oldest and deepest aqueduct in Iran with a length of 33 km and a depth of mother well of 300 meters, 427 loops and a flow of 150 liters of water that the jinn are said to have dug Are) Baladeh Ferdows aqueduct (located on the way from Ferdows to Gonabad, aqueduct with 27 strings and two springs), Hassanabad Moshir aqueduct (located in Mehriz, Yazd with 200 liters per second of watering and 70 km long) and Bagh Zarch aqueduct (Located in Zarch, Yazd, the longest aqueduct in the world with a length of 71 km with 2115 wells with a square cross section and three branches that pass under the city of Yazd), Ebrahimabad Arak aqueduct (located in Ebrahimabad village of Mushkabad Arak, It has 311 wells, 11 km long and three strings, only conical aqueduct and 110 m deep mother well (Mazdabad aqueduct) in Maymeh, Isfahan and the second oldest aqueduct in the country, 18 km long, 74 m deep, mother well, two hot and cold fields and has an underground dam. Water outflow can be stopped in winter (Vazvan public aqueduct) in Maymeh, Isfahan, has a unique underground dam with a height of 9 meters and its length in the longest part 1 .5 meters, 1.2 meters in the shortest part and its thickness is 1.5 meters. On the wall of the dam, five gates have been installed at different distances of one to 1.5 meters from each other and the aqueduct has been dug in sedimentary and stony ground (Moon aqueduct (located in Ardestan, Yazd) is known as the strangest aqueduct structure in the world and the most important reason is Is that the water of the upper aqueduct and the water of the lower aqueduct move on top of each other without the water of the upper aqueduct penetrating the lower aqueduct, 4 km long, 40 wells and the depth of the mother is 31 m) Length and 129 wells in six series), twin aqueducts: Akbarabad aqueduct in Bam (in Akbarabad village of Reagan district, Bam city with a length of 1100 meters and 35 wells) and Qasemabad aqueduct in Bam Of the functions of the central part, the city is 2300 meters long and has 50 wells. Also, the flow rate of this aqueduct is 139 liters per second. Iran’s 20th World Heritage Site is the 20th best time to see the aqueduct



Access roads: The capital of Yazd province is the city of Yazd and is located almost in the center of Iran

Yazd is one of the metropolises of Iran and the center of Yazd province and city, which is located in the center of Iran in a dry and wide valley between Shirkuh and Khoranagh mountains. This city was registered in the world in 1396. Yazd is one of the medical centers of Iran. Yazd is located in the Ardakan plain of Yazd.

It was later and the “eighth Hijri” was the first safe deposit box in the world was built 1700 years ago in the basin of civilization of this city.The peak of Yazd development, from the Atabakan century of Yazd is one of the most important factors in the development of this city in the past centuries. Due to its valuable historical architecture and traditional hand texture

It was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List on July 9, 2017. This historical city was registered as the first city of Iran and the 22nd historical monument of the country in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The historical context of Yazd is one of the most amazing examples of a country’s cultural heritage, every corner of which has secrets to discover. The historical city of Yazd is a vast and ancient region with a history of several thousand years, which is the widest, most principled and pristine historical texture of Iran and the second largest residential brick texture in the world. Tourism, historical, natural and cultural heritage of Yazd is one of the best tourist destinations. They are Iran and the world. The historical structure of the city, windbreaks, aqueduct system, traditional and brick alleys and houses, minarets and domes are the most important architectural features of the historical city of Yazd. Proximity to the Silk Road, the presence of historical monuments, reservoirs, baths, bazaars, mosques, reliance, prisons, Hosseiniyah, places of worship, old gardens, Zoroastrian temples, museums, etc. are other features of this historic city. River. The historical city of Yazd

It also has a system of aqueducts, traditional houses, bazaars, baths, mosques, Zoroastrian temples and Dolatabad garden as a historical city is part of the world heritage. The most prominent feature of the city is its special desert architecture. Windbreaks, minarets Domes are the most obvious aspect of the city’s architecture. In this style of architecture, windbreaks have been used to capture wind currents and cool the building space. The texture and construction of special architecture in Yazd region is one of the most prominent examples of special architecture in hot and dry climates in the world. Its suitability with the needs and climatic-cultural conditions of the people of the region, in addition to the special beauty of this architecture, is one of its features. In the center of each neighborhood, usually bath, bazaar, water storage, mosque, Hosseinieh, lord, small workshops, water atmosphere (To access the aqueduct) is located that many of these facilities are still standing. The main base of the Yazd Grand Mosque was built in the Sassanid era, on a Sassanid fire temple. Yazd Grand Mosque, a 900-year-old building, the most magnificent and beautiful historical building in Yazd province with the tallest minaret is located in the center of Yazd. The height of the minarets of the Grand Mosque is 52 meters and its diameter is 8 meters. It was built and in fact this mosque is a combination of three old mosques in different historical periods. central Mosque

Yazd became modern today during the Qajar period. The soil of Karbala and Gulab has been used to prepare the soil of tiles and materials of the Grand Mosque, a point that many Yazidis refer to. In the unique decorations made in this mosque, tiles and designs of Ali (AS) and in other places, the Iranian symbol of Akhshij (four main elements and the seal circle) have been used. This symbol was a sacred symbol from ancient Iran in Important buildings such as Persepolis can be seen and still remain. Sights of Yazd: Amir Chakhmaq Complex, Yazd Grand Mosque, Zainuddin Caravanserai, Lari House, Dolatabad Garden, Hammam Khan, Zoroastrian crypt, Shash Badgir reservoir , Gio Reservoir, Verhram Fire Temple, Abolmaali Bath, Seyyed Shamsuddin Tomb, Seyyed Golsorkh Tomb, Twelve Imam Tomb, Fahadan Neighborhood, Saat Square, Khan Bazaar, Water Museum, Qasr Aineh Museum, Yazd Tower and Fortress, Haji Ghanbar Bazaar, Rasoulian House, Nawab Vakil House, Sekandar Prison or Ziaieh School, Caracal Desert, Aghazadeh House, Siah Kooh Desert, Saheb Al-Zaman Zurkhaneh, Khoranagh village and its single minaret, Sarizad Castle, Narin Castle, Kolahdoozan House, Shirkuh Slope, etc. .. The best time to travel is the non-hot seasons of the year, especially spring and autumn.


Perspective of Sassanid archeology of Persia

Access roads: Fars province Cities: Firoozabad – Kazerun – Sarvestan

There are eight ancient sites that are located in three ancient regions, Firoozabad, Bishapour, Sarvestan in the southwest of Fars province. These works are related to the early and late Sassanid period, which spread throughout the region from 224 to 658 AD.

Firoozabad Girl Castle: It is located in six kilometers of Firoozabad-Shiraz road on a mountain slope overlooking the road, which can be reached after a distance of about 300 meters. This castle is made entirely of large stones and facade stones are carved. The grandeur of the construction of this castle is astonishing. In a part of the castle, a cave can be seen, which according to some locals, this cave had a way to Ardeshir Babakan Palace in Firoozabad plain.

Lithograph of the kingdom of Ardeshir Babakan: This work belongs to the Sassanid period and is located in Firoozabad, km 3 and 5 of the road from Firoozabad to Shiraz. He gives the fire to Ardeshir, 70 meters / appoints him to the throne. Behind Ardashir stand the Crown Prince Shapur and two other princes. Dimensions: 7 meters in 3 lithographs of Ardeshir’s victory over Ardavan: It belongs to the Sassanid period and is located in Firoozabad, km 3 and 5 of Firoozabad-Shiraz road. Is. This lithograph with eighteen meters in length and approximately four meters in height is the largest surviving lithograph in Iran. This work is located in Firoozabad city and around Firoozabad river and on a rock and its carved sword was stolen several years ago.

Ardeshir Khoreh (Gore city): It is an ancient place in Firoozabad city, Fars province. This city was founded in the early third century AD by the order of Ardeshir Babakan. At the time of its development, Gore was the center of a part of Fars province called Ardeshir Khoreh Furnace. The design of this city is circular and has four main gates with a diameter of two kilometers and government buildings and the residence of courtiers. . The ancient city of Gore is now abandoned and the current city of Firuzabad is three kilometers away.

Ardeshir Babakan Palace: This palace is located in Firoozabad. This palace has nested halls and after 1800 years of plastering the upper part of its inner walls, the damage is still ignored. On the east side of the palace, there are four huge dome-shaped buildings, these domes are raised by an elephant-clad, similar to which can be seen in Dokhtar Castle (Ardeshir Castle)

Bishabour city: In 266 AD, by the order of Shapur I, the Sassanid king, and after the victory over the Roman emperor Valerian, he ordered the construction of a city of Ctesiphon in a pleasant area on the way from Persepolis to Persepolis.

Shapur I statue: It is located six kilometers from the ancient city of Bishapour, and 6 kilometers from the city of Kazerun in a cave where. A very large statue of 6 meters and a shoulder width of more than 2 meters is made of stalagmite. The statue collapsed due to an earthquake, and in the 1940s the army restored the 70-foot-tall statue to a concrete base.

Sarvestan Sassanid Palace: It is located 9 km south of Sarvestan city in Sarvestan city and Tezang neighborhood and the whole complex has an area of ​​25 hectares. This palace is made of stone and plaster and a square porch forms its central part, which is 13 meters long and wide, and 18 meters high. It also has a dome in the center and courtyard.

These works were registered at the June 30, 2018 meeting of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. The best time to travel is the non-hot seasons of the year.