Iranian Wildlife

Due to its geographical and climatic diversity, Iran has a very valuable species diversity and according to the latest study and reports of environmental experts, about 1131 species of animals including mammals, reptiles and amphibians live in terrestrial and inland water ecosystems of Iran.

Mammal category:

The category of mammals with 194 identified species includes a wide range of animals in terms of size, such as a very small mammal called a dwarf insectivorous and weighing only about 2 grams, and large whales that are more than thirty meters long and It weighs 130 tons and can be seen in this category in the waters of the South Sea. Among the known species, there are many species that live only in Iran and in other parts of the world either do not exist or have been transmitted by migration and human manipulation and other methods, including cheetahs, yellow deer and zebras. Iranian pointed out. Among the mammals of our country, the order of rodents with 69 species (more than one third of the total mammals of Iran) due to the importance in the spread of diseases, damage to crops, ease of collection and maintenance, have been studied and studied. The basis of morphology has been done, but the need for new studies such as chromosomal, biochemical, molecular and behavioral studies is also strongly felt.

The species richness of Iranian mammals should not cause pride, because of species such as Persian lion and Mazandaran tiger, there is nothing left but a name today, and if there is a comprehensive plan to preserve and protect other valuable species of mammals such as Persian gourd, Persian cheetah, If there is no black bear, no yellow deer, in the near future we will see the extinction of these rare species in our country.

Among the five categories of vertebrates in the world, the category of mammals has 27 orders and 5416 species and Iran has 10 orders, order of hedgehogs, order of insectivores, order of bats, order of rodents, order of rabbits, order of carnivores, order of individual cement, order The Seman pair, the order of waterfowl, is the order of sea cows, which according to the latest list published in the Atlas of Mammals of Iran, 197 species have been identified and 18 possible species have been introduced.

1- Hedgehog and Insectivore Order (Eulipotyphla): This order includes 3 families and a total of 15 species, of which 12 species are in the state of least concern (Least Concern) and 3 species are in the state of lack of information (DD).

In the past, the order of hedgehogs and insectivores were separated from each other, and now, due to research, these two orders have been merged.


2 – Chiroptera bat order: This order has 7 families and 41 species, of which 2 species of bats in vulnerable condition (Vulnerable, 3 species of bats in the threat of breeding (Near Threatened), 34 species of bats in conditions of minimal concern (Least Concern) And 2 species are in information deficit (DD) status.


3 – Rodentia (Rodentia order: This order has 7 families and 2 subfamilies, the total number of species reaches 66 species and is one of the largest orders in the country that 5 species of this order are on the verge of threatening the generation (Near Threatened) 54 species are in Least Concern and 7 species are in DD.


4 – Order of rabbits (Lagomrpha: This order has 2 families with 4 species that are in the state of least concern (Least Concern).


5 – Carnivora (Carnivora): This order has 7 families and 28 species. In this order, 2 species extinct in Iran (EX), 1 species in critical condition (Critically Endangered), 2 species in danger of extinction Endangered), 2 species in vulnerable condition (Vulnerable, 4 species on the verge of endangerment) Near Threatened) and 17 species are in Least Concern.


6- Odd – toed Ungulates (Perissodactyla): This order has only one family and one species and is the smallest order in terms of species diversity in Iran. Unfortunately, this valuable species of our country is currently endangered. ) contract .


7- Even-toed Ungulates (Aryiodactyla): This order has 3 families and 8 species, of which 1 species is endangered, 3 species are vulnerable (Vulnerable and 4 species are Least Concern). Concern) are located.


8-Cetacea: This order has 3 families and 21 species, of which 1 species in Critically Endangered (CR), 1 species in Vulnerable, 1 species in Near Threatened, 8 species are in Least Concern and 10 species are in DD.


9-The order Cetartiodactyla: This order has 2 families and 2 species, of which 1 species is in a vulnerable state and 1 species is in a state of minimal concern (Least Concern).

Bird category:

Among vertebrates, birds have the widest uncontested environment in the universe, the air, due to their ability to fly. In Iran, 521 species of birds have been identified and reported so far, which is equivalent to the total number of bird species in continental Europe. Most species are birds that rely on wetlands, but the pollution and destruction of wetlands in Iran in recent years is a factor in Many species of birds in Iran have decreased and now birds such as Siberian deer, balaban, white duck, ewe, golden eagle, marbled duck and a number of other species in the country are threatened and extinct.

How many Iranian birds are native to Iran?

Approximately 225 species of birds that reproduce in Iran actually evolved in other geographical areas and then spread to parts of Iran with greater adaptation of environmental conditions to their habitat. Thus, about 50 species of birds, such as the green-headed, gypsy rooster, great spotted woodpecker, and elk found in the plains and forests of the Caspian region and Azerbaijan, actually belong to the vast forest areas and humid steppes of temperate Europe and Asia. To be.

The wood pigeon, starling, risk wheel and finch actually belong to the large-leafed forests of Europe and are mostly found in western and northern Iran. Garden woodpecker, black risk wheel and yellow-faced yolk are observed in western Iran but belong to the Mediterranean region. The black-toothed collar and yolk belong to the warm steppes of Turkestan and southern Russia and are also present in the steppes of northeastern and northern Iran.

A picture of a raven, the only native bird

Podoces pleskei is the only native bird species in Iran that has not been observed in any other country. It is good to know that there are countless birds such as the Iranian Red-breasted, which originate from the Iranian plateau, but are not considered native birds of Iran.

Homa’s main birthplace is the yellow-nosed crow, the fur wall and the electric sparrow are from the mountains of southern Eurasia, and the Alborz and Zagros mountains are their habitat.

The spotted cuttlefish and yellow heron found in the southwest of the Zagros are also of African origin, and the Indian heron, white-backed slab, buchanga, enamel, and nectarine found in southeastern Iran are originally Indian. And owl is one of the birds of the Middle East that are scattered in Iran.

  Fish category:

Fish are among the earliest vertebrates to emerge and today have the largest group of vertebrates with about 30,000 species. Fish make up just over half of all living vertebrates.

Some groups are evolving by describing new species, while others are declining due to species identity or extinction. However, the number of fish species is increasing every year. The diversity of live fish is greater than that of known fossil arrays, and there is rich information on fish fossils. Of the approximately 515 fish families today, Gobiidae, Cyprinidae, carpfish, most of which are freshwater fish (Balitoridae) and Cichlidae, are the largest families, and interestingly, about 43% of all fish. , Are freshwater fish.

According to genealogical classification, most beetles are closer to mammals than to sharks. Despite this heterogeneous combination, they show lineage cohesion. Some limit the term “fish” to bony jawbones, and many add sharks, finches, and their relatives. Some also add jawless skulls. Thus, the term “fish” is a phylogenetic group.

Inland waters of Iran include 180 species that belong to 27 families. In the inland water group of carp, the carp family is the predominant fish fauna, which alone has 31 genera and 74 species. Korgar fish, red-spotted trout, Afinius are among the species unique to Iran and have a high biological value. Unfortunately, due to the lack of attention to the conservation and management of inland aquatic species during the last two decades, comprehensive studies to identify fish in different aquatic ecosystems have not been conducted and accurate information and statistics on the abundance and distribution of many species or population of some Species such as the sturgeon are endangered

Reptile category:

Reptiles are the oldest class of terrestrial fauna (vertebrates) that have lived on Earth since about 300 million years ago. Iran’s location in the arid and semi-arid global belt, on the one hand, and its location at the confluence of the climates of Africa, South Asia, Central Asia, and Europe, on the other, have led to considerable diversity of reptile species in Iran. .

Considering the migratory nature of many Iranian birds, Iranian reptiles with about 225 species (snakes with 77 species, lizards with 136 species, turtles with 10 species and crocodiles and lizard worms each with one species) can be the largest group of vertebrates. Daran lived in Iran.

This number, which increases every year with the discovery of new species due to the development of reptile knowledge in Iran, is almost equal to the number of known reptiles in Europe, and although Iran is about 3% of Asia, the habitat It is about 10% of all reptiles in Asia. Of these, more than 40 species of Iranian reptiles are native and many of these native reptiles live in small and limited habitats.


The lack of comprehensive and in-depth studies on the biology and protection of these animals on the one hand and the declining population due to the destruction of their habitats in recent years has caused relatively great concern about a number of valuable reptile species in our country. Hundreds of thousands of venomous snakes have endangered many species of venomous snakes, including the horned viper and the Damavandi viper. Multi-year droughts in Sistan and Baluchestan province, which is the habitat of Iran’s only wetland crocodile species, have raised concerns about the declining population of this species.

Based on the above points, different classifications have been considered for reptiles:

  1. Classification of reptiles based on habitat

  2. Classification of reptiles based on the presence with the absence of poisonous teeth

  3. Classification of venomous snakes based on the type of predominant venom

  4. Scientific classification of reptiles

Central Plateau (from the distribution areas of reptiles and amphibians)

This region, which includes the central part of Iran, is the largest physiographic region of amphibians and reptiles in Iran. The Central Plateau of Iran includes all the inland deserts of Iran, such as the Central Desert and Lut Desert. This region is limited from the north to the southern slopes of Alborz mountain range, from the west to the eastern slopes of the Zagros mountain range and from the south to the northern slopes along the Zagros mountain range, except for most parts of Sistan and Baluchestan province. Some of the most important species of reptiles and amphibians that can be easily seen in this area are:

Agile Agama

Gray toad agama

Kaiserling and Badriaga dumplings

Jeremiah of Iran

Lasherta Marchm

Golden meadow skins

Their red skins

Caspian desert owl

Jafari snake

Horned snake

July Desert

Snake bite

Eurasian worm-shaped snake

Ring dwarf snake

Asian turtle

Oriental tortoise

Persian pond turtle

Swamp frog

Baloch green toad


Amphibian category:

20 species of amphibians (toads, frogs and salamanders) have been reported in our country so far.

20 species of amphibians live in Iran, including 6 species of salamanders and 14 species of frogs and toads. Iranian amphibians are found mainly in river wetlands shared with neighbors Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkey and Iraq, and due to the abundance of water, they mostly live in the northwestern provinces. In a country with different environmental zones, most amphibian species are those that are scattered and have excellent biological tolerance.

And species such as Lorestan salamander, Kurdistan salamander, Iranian salamander and Azerbaijani salamander are in critical condition or endangered


Classification of Iranian amphibians

Amphibians are classified in the zoological class of vertebrates, whose first motor organs originated from the mutation of fish, but because of the many changes in their body structure, they have adapted to living on land.

Amphibians are classified into 2 subcategories:

1- Early amphibians (Stegocephalia)

These amphibians had scaly bodies and a salamander or crocodile-like appearance and large teeth, and none of the subspecies is currently alive.

2- Modern amphibians (Lissamphibia)

These animals have skin without scales and small teeth


 The rarest Iranian species

Iran has a unique and diverse nature and this has led some of the rarest and most special animal species to choose its unique nature for life. Animals, most of which are in serious danger of extinction, are among the few remaining populations of their species. From the smallest seal species in the world to the Palace cat, Iran is home to many of the most special animal species. Join Eli Gesht to get acquainted with the rarest animal species in Iran.


1- Pyrenean mountain goat

Pyrenees is a beautiful and rare animal that is hunted by many hunters. The delicious meat of this antelope is the main reason for its uncontrolled hunting. Another reason for the rarity of this rare species is the house and road construction in the mountains, which has caused the destruction of the main habitat of this animal and as a result we are witnessing a decrease in the number of this species in Iran.


2- Iranian yellow deer

Persian yellow deer is one of the most beautiful and rare species of deer in the world that lives in the foothills. Unfortunately, this unique animal is in danger of extinction. Two important factors in the extinction of this deer are hunting by predators and pollution of the natural environment of this animal by garbage, which causes this animal to feed on municipal or industrial waste.

3- Cat Palace

Iranian cats are very famous in the world because of their extremely beautiful appearance. But one of the most special species of Persian cats is the Palace Wild cat, which, unlike other Iranian cats, does not behave very gently. One of the most important features of this cat is its perfectly round pupil. This incredibly beautiful cat is small in size and lives in the highlands. The high attractiveness of this species has led to its over-smuggling and endangerment of this species. However, little effort has been made to survive the offspring of this rare species.


 4- Caspian seal

This lovely animal is the smallest species of seal in the world that lives only in Lake Mazandaran. Caspian seal is one of the rarest species of seal in the world that is endangered. It is interesting to know that these seals are the only mammals living in the Caspian Sea. Hunting by humans, pollution of the sea and hunting by sea eagles and gray wolves are the main reasons for the extinction of this rare species. These seals migrate to the southern shores of the Caspian Sea in spring and summer and to the northern parts of the sea in autumn and winter.


 5- King owl

King owls are the largest Persian owls and one of the most beautiful owl species in the world. The Persian owl is less endangered than other rare species in Iran, but the main causes of death of this magnificent animal are the use of pesticides, power lines, barbed wire and habitat loss. The naturalness of this living thing is known. Under perfect conditions, these hawthorns can live up to 60 years, but typically live for about 20 years. It is interesting to know that the wingspan of this magnificent owl reaches about 2 meters during flight.


6- Persian leopard

Iran is the main habitat of this magnificent animal. The Persian leopard is a special and endangered species whose main habitat is forests and areas far from the city. It is one of the largest leopard species in the world, with a handful of them in Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, Afghanistan and Turkey. The main reasons for the decline of this rare species are hunting by humans and drought and declining vegetation.


7- Eagle snout turtle

Eagle-nosed turtle is one of the rarest species of turtle in the world, which is mostly found on Qeshm Island and is in critical condition in terms of extinction. This beautiful animal is highly hunted in Japan and China because of its delicious meat, and its unique lacquer is used in many decorative accessories. The eagle-nosed turtle is one of the seven wonders of Qeshm Island, which is kept in a protected area. Another reason for the extinction of this species is the hunting of its young by octopuses and crabs. This species dates back to 100 million years ago and has a lifespan of about 30 to 50 years.


8- The fox king

The fox king is one of the special Iranian species that is smaller than other fox species. This species of fox is the rarest species of fox in Iran, which is hunted indiscriminately due to its beautiful skin. It is interesting to know that this animal is more active at night and is very smart and playful. The fox breed has been declining sharply in recent years and is in danger of extinction. This beautiful species is mainly insectivorous and fruit-eating and has a lifespan of about 4 to 5 years. King foxes generally live in mountainous areas with an altitude of less than 2,000 meters. This species is mostly seen in hills and mountains near the plains in Iran.


9- Golden Eagle

The golden eagle is one of the strongest and most magnificent birds of prey in Asia and Europe. You can see the images of this magnificent species, which has always been a sign of glory and power in ancient Iran, in the ancient engravings of Iran. The golden eagle is highly hunted due to its extremely beautiful appearance and is one of the protected species in Iran, which lives mainly in the Alborz and Zagros mountains. It is interesting to know that this amazing species can reach speeds of up to 320 km / h while flying.