Wildlife in Iran (Native Iranian Fauna)

Iran’s wildlife varies according to the country’s situation. The diversity and contradiction of Iran’s natural environment is one of the winning cards of Iran’s environment. Habitat diversity in Iran is from desert and hot and dry to green and fertile plains. This causes biodiversity of living organisms and animals in Iran. In the following, we will introduce scientifically, habitats, types of animals in Iran, mammals, birds, insects and birds of Iran.

Scientific definition of wildlife

Wildlife in scientific sources is a collection of animals and plants that live freely in nature without human intervention in their natural environment. In the definition of tourism, this term is generally limited to animals.

Habitats of Iran

The vast and ancient land of Iran, with a lifespan of several hundred million years, has undergone many changes and ups and downs. The most important and main of them is the emergence of Alborz folds and central areas and then the Zagros Mountains. This great event has shaped the image of Iran tens of millions of years ago.

The existence of these changes in the morphology of Iran has led to the creation of diverse climates such as desert and hot and dry, fertile green plains, semi-warm regions of Siri, mountainous and temperate forests.

The existence of diverse and rich habitats of its kind has attracted migratory animals to Iran throughout history. Some of these animals have become native and adapted to Iran, and this has enriched biodiversity in Iran.

The impact of climate on animal life

Evidence suggests that biodiversity in Iran has been much higher in the past than it is today. These works and evidences can be seen in the old Iranian writings that were discovered in Maragheh 7 to 9 million years ago. In it he saw traces of ants, lazy people, giraffes, rhinos, elephants and tigers, dagger teeth and even monkeys. This inscription is found under the volcanic ash of Sahand.

Man has a small share in this extinction. The most important cause of their extinction was geological events. With the emptying of these habitats and habitats, migratory animals have come to Iran from Northeast Asia, Europe and even Africa.

Division of Wildlife of Iran (Iranian Native Phone)

The diversity of Iran’s wildlife is still significant, despite the many damage caused by poaching. Iran’s animals are divided into 174 species of fish, 206 species of reptiles, 514 species of birds, 20 species of amphibians, and 194 species of mammals. Of these figures, 12 species of fish, 2 species of amphibians, 11 species of reptiles, 15 species of mammals and 16 species of birds have been declared endangered.

Mammals of Iran

The diverse habitats of Iran have caused a great diversity of mammals in Iran. Iranian mammals include at least 194 species. They start with dorsal thorns until dolphins and cats change.

Birds of Iran

Birds are the most beautiful and popular animal species in Iran, which has also entered the ancient myths and stories of Iran. The distribution and habitat of some birds in Iran is the same as in Iran. Others are limited to certain areas of Iran. Iranian birds with at least 532 known species, including native, migratory and transit birds.

Amphibians of Iran

Amphibians were the first living things to appear on land. The diversity of this type of animal in Iran is very low. Iranian amphibians are known with at least 22 species.

Reptiles of Iran

The remnants of the dinosaur era are the same family of reptiles. They saved themselves from extinction by leaving events behind. In Iran, famous tortoises and reptiles belong to the dinosaur family. Iranian reptiles with at least 243 known species including turtles, lizards, snakes and a species of crocodile.

Fishes of Iran

The north and south of Iran are surrounded by famous and large seas and lakes. These waters are inhabited by fish and aquatic animals, which have become native to these waters. There are at least 180 known species of Iranian fish, including domestic fish.

Butterflies of Iran

Iranian butterflies have long played a significant role in the nature and culture of this ecosystem. When it comes to Iranian wildlife and animals, few people think of Iranian butterflies. Due to the geographical location of Iran, its vastness and climate, there is a variety of different species of butterflies in it.

Little owl

The small owl (Athene noctua) is a bird of prey of the order Strigiformes and the genus Strigidae. This beautiful bird adorns Iran’s wildlife due to its vastness and abundance in Iran. For this reason, it is sometimes called the little Persian owl.

Appearance of a small owl

The owl is 22 inches long and weighs about 180 grams (6.3 ounces). This owl has a round head and long legs. Male and female owls are similar.

The owl’s eyes are pale yellow to yellowish sulfur and its pupil is black. Their margins are covered with white feathers. White eyebrows have given these birds a serious and sullen look. Two large eyes on the front of the head and a broad face make them look different from any other bird.

 Small owl prey and food

Small owls feed on insects, mainly beetles and locusts. Owls store extra food in their holes in tree holes. Although owls have been found to be carnivores, small owls also eat some plant materials such as leaves and small fruits such as berries and corn.

Small owl habitat

In the alleys of old gardens and buildings, inside or on the outskirts of the city, on rocks, deserts and semi-deserts with rocks or ruins, oases, barren and stony lands, pastures with scattered trees, gardens with old fruit trees, along rivers and streams, parks And the margins of semi-open forests are habitats. They also live locally around farmhouses or warehouses or sometimes in people’s settlements with arable land. In the Himalayas at altitudes up to 4600 meters and in Central Europe at altitudes below 700 meters are usually seen. They do not prefer living in forests. The owl is the only owl found in arid deserts.

 Distribution of small owl in Iran

The small owl is distributed throughout Iran except the south of the country.


Little Owl Singing

The little owl is acoustically active almost all year round. But the male owl sings more, especially during the mating season. Males usually start singing in the evening. They sing to determine territory, mate, and communicate with family.

Small owl habits and behavior

The little owl is more active in the evening, but is also somewhat active during the day and night. The little owl often hides in dense foliage or holes during the day. It is sometimes found in exposed places such as bare branches or hills or rocks. When in danger or threat, it assumes a slim and upright position and then pulls its body up and down. But if the threat continues, the little owl will fly and hide somewhere. The owl descends to its prey with rapid blows of wings on the prey. Many species of owls have feathers that are designed to fly silently.

The leading edge of the owl’s feathers is stiff, which reduces the filling sound during flight, while the rear edge of the owl’s feathers has a soft margin that balances the flight. The feathers also have a fluffy coating that prevents noise during flight. And because of this type of feathers, the flight takes place almost in complete silence, and their silence helps to surprise the prey in the silence of the night.

Owl corners are very strong in absorbing waves. The eyes of all owls are on the same level as humans. So these birds have to turn their heads to see around them. Owls have the ability to rotate their heads 180 degrees and their vision is black and white.

Little owl mortality

Small owls may reach the age of 16, but normally they do not live that long. The average owl is three years old. Many of them collide with vehicles while hunting at night. Severe winters with heavy snowfall cause extensive damage in some areas of their population. Drought and pollution are involved in the death of this animal in Iran.

 The role of the little owl in nature

Owls play an important role in controlling rodent and insect populations. Their major feeding on wild rats and harmful insects has made the little owl a very economical bird for agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry. This bird is very important for regional pest control, integrated management of forest diseases and insect pests. In fact, they control the ecosystem.

Rooting owl and owl names

The word owl has entered Persian from the Sogdian language and the origin of the word is owl. In Persian texts, other synonyms used for owl are: owl, owl, avalanche chicken, owl, owl, owl, owl, owl, owl, owl, owl, owl, owl, owl, owl, owl, owl, owl , Lunch, beech, beech, beech, sage and blind smell. Large numbers of owls were also called Kharkov in ancient times. In the culture of the Behdins – the book of a thousand words of the Zoroastrians of Iran – nicknames such as Fatemeh Soltong, Baby Kor, Kokue and Kokove are mentioned for owls.


Beliefs of the Iranian people about the owl

In some parts of Gilan, hearing the sound of an owl is a sign of bad news. For this reason, by driving this bird, they try to keep the sound away from the house. Sometimes a half-burnt stick is thrown at him and he shouts loudly (fire from me, meat from the butcher). If the owl flies to the qibla, it will be repelled unharmed, but otherwise the landlord must give alms to eliminate the misfortune.

Shock and Kokuwang are the same evil owl in Bakhtiari dialect. The meaning of the word kokwang is the first part of the word, which is the usual song of an owl, and the second part of the word wang means crying and hair with shouting. The word shock originally means jinn in the Bakhtiari dialect, but it is also used for owls.

The people of Tehran have named this bird Meymant Khanum so that the owl does not catch them.

The owl in Azerbaijan is called Geje Ghoshi (night bird) and Bayqush (noble bird). In Turkish culture, the owl is a bird that is a symbol of wealth and power. The common people ask him for wealth when they see him. This belief may have originated from his place of residence, the ruins and caves. Places where treasure may be hidden, and perhaps for this reason it is a sign of burial.

In Mazandaran, in the local dialect, the little owl is called Korbo or Kore Bo, which means blind owl. The owl is called Bo in Balochi and is called Kund in Kurdish.

Owl letters are different in different parts of Iran. Each of them tells the story of this strange bird. Accordingly, the name of this bird in each region indicates a positive or negative attitude towards this creature.

Where do the beliefs of the Iranian people about the owl come from?

The owl or owl has been contradictory in the cultures and beliefs of the world, sometimes considered sacred and sometimes sinister. This is no exception in Iran. At present, the people of Iran in some parts of the country consider the owl as a valuable bird. While in other areas the owl is ominous. The reasons for this belief can be pointed to the life of this bird in the ruins, the shape and appearance of this bird and the song of some buffets is like a moan and a story of calamity. It basically takes a century for people to change their beliefs or culture. This belief seems to have entered Iran after the culture of the Arab people. The food of this bird was lizards, lizards, snakes, lizards and mice, which is the food that the Arabs eat; After the arrival of the Arabs in Iran, the ominousness of this bird has become even stronger.

In addition, there is a myth among the Arabs about the owl, which Sadegh Hedayat has beautifully stated: A grain of wheat is eaten from a small property and stuck in his throat, he tells the truth so much that three drops of blood drip from his throat. Refers to the song Ho Ho Owl

The owl in the history of ancient Iran

In the Avestan culture, the owl is a very good bird, wise and one of the companions of Ahura Mazda. In the book of Avesta, the owl is mentioned under the name of Ashuzasht or Bahman Morgh (Vuhuman), which means fleeing from demons and evils. In the book Bandheshan – a book in the Pahlavi language about creation – it is the voice of the holy owl and it is the voice of this bird that disperses the court. The reason why the owl lives in the ruins, according to the beliefs quoted in the prison, is because the court does not live there. Zobreh chicken, Hooman chicken, pendant, night chicken and Ho Moro are the letters given to this animal in ancient Iranian literature.

Homa, the mythical bird of Iran

Homa is one of the rarest carnivorous birds in the world and in the wild of Iran. This huge bird is the king of flying in the highlands. In this article, an attempt has been made to address the appearance and diet of Homa, the habits and behavior of this bird, its reproduction, habitat and global distribution, and the threats of this bird. Also, a look at the origins of the name of this bird, its presence in the beliefs of the people and literature of Iran, its role in ancient Iran and the remaining works of this bird in the ancient monuments of Iran have been paid.

Homa bird

Physical characteristics of Homa

Homa is a large bird from the carnivorous family, with long wings, a long rhombus-shaped tail and a gray color. Its distinctive physical features are a beard-like black hairline under the beak and a red ring around the bird’s eyes. The length of this bird is 94 to 125 cm (37-49 inches). Also, the size of this bird is 1.10 meters from head to tail. The female of this bird is slightly larger than the male. Unlike most vultures, the head is not bald and has hair.

The wingspan of the adult Homa bird is dark gray, smoky and white. The forehead is cream with a black stripe around the eyes. This bird has a special interest in orange. So this color is a kind of cosmetics for this bird.

 Homa diet

Homa is the only known vertebrate in the world whose diet consists exclusively of 85-90% bone marrow. Like other vultures, it feeds mostly on the remains and bones of dead animals. It is the only bird in the world that specializes in feeding on bone marrow.

This bird can swallow bones the size of a femur. Its powerful digestive system dissolves large pieces of bone easily and quickly.

Homa bird habits and behavior

This bird is usually quiet in sound, except for the noisy whistles in mating shows. This bird can eat the bones of these dead animals in the mountains, even months after death and decomposition. The average lifespan of this bird is 21 years, but in captivity this bird can live up to 45 years. These birds are solitary. The male is monogamous, but females mate with another male to maintain survival and reproduction.

This flying bird looks more like a large hawk than a vulture. This feature distinguishes this bird from other carnivores. Due to their interest in orange, some believe that the name of this bird may be derived from the ancient Persian plant Hum.

Habitat and global distribution of Homa bird

This bird is distributed in mountainous regions from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Africa. In the Caucasus region, the Zagros and Alborz mountains in Iran, Baba mountain in Bamyan, Afghanistan, the Himalayan mountains, in the mountains of northern India, western and central China, Israel.

Bone-eating birds have a habitat in Iran’s national parks, including Sarigol, Ghomishloo, Lar, Bamo and Golestan National Parks.

The habitat of this species is perfectly connected with the mountains, with many rocks and valleys. They are often found near pastures and mountain pastures, mountain meadows and fields, rocky valleys, and steppes. Sometimes they also live around forests.

This bird dates back to the Pliocene geological period

Homa in the belief of the people of Iran

According to the beliefs of the ancient people of Iran, ‌ Homa is a blessed bird. If the shadow of this bird falls on someone, that person will be happy and prosperous and may even reach the position of king. According to this belief, another name of this bird is Happiness Chicken. This belief is often seen in the poetry of Persian poets of different poets.

Homa in Iranian literature

Homa is a manifestation of pride and glory in Persian literature of Iran. Seeing this bird is auspicious. In Persian literature, different animals, including Homa, are placed opposite each other to compare their characteristics and highlight their superior traits.

In Khosrow, Shirin, Lily, and Majnoon Nezami, Homa is described as a great and majestic person, with great speed, and an honorable and beloved person, in order to describe prosperity, monarchy, and monarchy.

Homa in Ferdowsi Shahnameh

Homa is a girl’s name in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, which is the letters of Iranian witnesses such as the daughter of Goshtasb, King Kiani, and the daughter of Bahman Esfandiar, nicknamed Chehrzad. Homayoun in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh is a name derived from Homa in the form of the word Homa + Gon meaning auspicious and blessed. This name is the name of Iranian princes and heroes, including the hero known as Zarrin Kolah during the reign of King Kiani Goshtasb. Also, as the name of this bird, ‌ is frequently seen in Shahnameh.

Homa in the history and ancient civilization of Iran

The symbolic bird of the ancient Iranians is Homa. In the beliefs of the ancient Iranians, animals were classified into two main groups: useful and insidious, and the creation of Ahura Mazda and the devil. Some characteristics of the native animals of Iran made them belong to Ahura Mazda. Homay bird is also from this group. The reason may be due to these reasons, in Avesta killing useful animals was considered a sin. One of the characteristics of this bird, unlike today ‘s stories about kidnapping children and lambs, is that this huge bird rarely hunts live prey and even avoids meat. This bird feeds on the bones left by animals and bones that other predators cannot eat. It is also the last animal to approach fragmented prey. This approach is also done slowly and without scaring other animals.

The next characteristics of this bird are its interest in orange and fire color. This color is reminiscent of fire, sun and the ancient religion of the Iranians. Avoiding eating meat by this bird is reminiscent of Avesta’s words about avoiding eating meat by the mourner. In fact, the death of a useful animal is a mourning for Homa. Also, flying at the highest point of the earth and altitudes is another characteristic of this strange bird. (The reasons mentioned are the author’s impression)

Antiquities left from Homa’s designs

The golden armband of the Homa goat and bird was found near the Amu Darya or Jeyhun River in the Takht Ghobad region of southwestern Tajikistan during the Achaemenid dynasty. This armband was made in five hundred years BC. On this armband were unique gemstones, all of which have been excavated. This unique antique is now housed in the British Museum. This armband is an example of the hundreds of antiques and rare objects from the Amu Darya treasure that are all housed in the Victoria and Albert Museum and the British Museum.

Bird Homa

In the carvings and some of the columns of Persepolis during the Achaemenid period, the glorious and majestic image of Homay shows itself to this day. The lion’s cup, or ancient Homay, dates to the seventh century BC, but its location is unknown.



Sabzeqba is a jewel in the wildlife of Iran that can be found all over Iran. Greenbirds are beautiful birds with a unique combination of colors that fascinate every viewer. The order Coraciidae includes medium-sized birds with strong beaks, slightly crooked and hook-like. These birds can be identified by their colorful feathers and spots. Their colorful feathers evoke habitats with warm climates.

Types of greens

The green family of Coraciidae was introduced by the French Plymouth in 1815. These birds in the new classification include eleven species in two genera, including:

Genus: Colored greens, broad-mouthed greens are divided. The colored genus includes the species Varaj, Abyssinian, Yasineh breast, second rowing, henna crest, Indian, purple wing and blue belly. And the green types of wide-mouthed coats include cinnamon, blueberry, azure and dollar pigeon.

Two species of sagebrush, one green sagebrush Coracias and the other Indian sagebrush benghalensis Coracias live and breed in Iran. The green species of garrulus Coracias in Iran is called common green. Indian sage is named after the same Indian. Indian sagebrush is one of the native animals of Iran in the south of the country. Coracias benghalensis is a bird of the Coraciidae family. It is widely distributed from West Asia to the Indian subcontinent. The common green bird is a migratory bird that is seen in summers in Iran in most parts of the country.

Appearance and physical characteristics of Sabzeqba beans

In fact, Sabzeqba are about 20 to 34 cm long. They are almost like crows. The wingspan is 52 to 58 cm. They have a wide range of colors including blue, green, pink, cinnamon purple, olive, turquoise, oak, brown. Most of these birds have a combination of blue and oak brown. The color of their beaks is black. Their eyes are grayish brown in color.


Most Sabzeqba turkeys have turquoise and light azure blue feathers with a brown chestnut dorsal surface. The tail of this bird is bright, long and at the end, square or inflated. This bird does not have spines and stratifiers.


Sabzeqba nest

Green quails usually nest in holes and crevices in walls and ruins and crevices in buildings, on river banks, in tree trunks, and in rocks and mounds. Due to their extent in the regions of Iran, nests can be seen in different places, including from the groves of the south to the slopes of the south of Tehran.

Sabzeqba bird diet

Indeed, greens, like many other animals in Iran, are patient hunters. Most of them sit motionless in high places and from there fly to the ground to hunt insects and sometimes small rodents and reptiles. The diet of these birds is mainly insects. But they catch a wide range of terrestrial invertebrates such as locusts, spiders, termites, ants, bees, beetles, crickets and small vertebrates such as frogs, rodents, lizards and young birds.

Sabzeqba distribution

Although Sabzeqba are now widely distributed in warmer climates, fossil records show that they also existed in North America during the Eocene. Most species of these birds live in Africa.

Khuzestan is the only province in Iran where these two species are born and live together in this province. Indian Sabzeqba prefer warm and humid conditions, but ordinary greens prefer cold and cool regions.

Habitat of Sabzeqba

Sabzeqba are more commonly found in rural and open field fields with scattered shrubs and trees. They are often seen along roadside trees and power lines. They usually prefer high fields and forested beaches. Indian sagebrush is native to open areas of scattered trees, agricultural lands and groves in southern Iran.


Characteristics of the Sabzeqba

Sabzeqba are best known for their male aerobic performances during the breeding season. Their showy flight includes interesting twists and turns. Despite its colorful color, it has a harsh and unpleasant sound. One of the hunting skills of this bird is hunting insects in flight. With the flight leap of this bird, it catches insects in the air.

The role of Sabzeqba in nature

They are considered as biological control agents for migratory locusts.

 Sabzeqbaha Protected Area

Marz Protected Area is located 430 km south of the center of Kerman province and 20 km east of Ghale Ganj city. It is home to animals such as black bears, small monkeys, lynx and leopards.

Why is Quba used in the name of this bird?

Throughout the history of Iran, Ghoba has always been the land of the Iranian people (men and women) with slight changes.

But the Sabzeqba is referred to this bird because the back and front of the wings are light oak. Its feathers are blue. It is as if this bird is wearing blue robes.

Other names of Sabzeqba in different cities of Iran in local language

Sabzeqba in Koukherd and Bastak city – one of the cities of Hormozgan province in southern Iran – is called kraashking (kraashking) whose name is very similar to its sound. Krashkin is mostly seen on the top of groves and on the branches of cedar or hornbeam and melon tree. Another name for it is Kokhred Ghoba Suzu.

In the villages around Bandar Abbas in Hormozgan province, Sabzeqba is known as karenjak, kha Roushk and kajeng.

This bird is called Kojang in the local language in Qaleh Ganj city and south of Kerman. In ancient Shiraz, the bee-eater was called Quba Suzak, and in the villages around Shiraz, it was also called Sabzak and Sabzeh Kolagh. In Azerbaijan, this bird is called Guo Qarqa (green crow). In Khuzestan it is called Kaskineh and Kaskeh.

In Dashtestan city of Bushehr province, it is known as Qarqaruk crow. It is also called Shirazi Kase Sheknak, Mazandarani Cracker, Isfahani Sabzeqba and Arabic Shaqraq and Akhil.

 Sabzeqba in Iranian literature

Due to their local names in different regions of Iran, Sabzeqba have also been mentioned under different names in Iranian literature and poetry. For example, in the conclusive argument, the Persian dictionary mentions this bird named Kaskineh, which is a reddish-green bird, which is also called green.

In the book Vandidad by Zoroastrian priests, it is written that everything was created to balance nature, so this bird was created to control the population of locusts. And the writings of this book are a proof of the presence of this bird in ancient Iran and show that this bird was one of the animals of Iran.

In Dehkhoda dictionary, this bird named Kaskineh is described as follows: A green bird tends to be red and it is also called green. In Iranian literature, this bird has been described as a symbol of gluttony and lust. Despite its dazzling beauty in Iranian literature among birds, this bird has been compared to a pig in cattle.

It is also mentioned in its description in Persian literature that this bird is smaller than a pigeon and has a good view. It is mostly seen in the mountains, but eggs and hatching occur in the villages. It is a thief of other chickens and often hunts sparrows. And they consider it abominable.

Other names of this bird in Persian literature have been green crow, green, agate, hat, green, dominance, green crow.


 Sabzeqba in people’s beliefs

Sabzeqba is a forbidden bird of meat among the people of Iran. In the past, many people did not like the sound of this bird and it was unpleasant for them. So that it was considered sinister. If he sat on the wall or roof of a house in the village, the landlord would run away. But today that notion is gone. Among the Hindus of India, this bird is one of the sacred birds.


Iranian Cheetah

Cheetah is one of the endangered animals of Iran, many species of Iranian animals are endangered due to unfavorable conditions and lack of attention. This is the fastest mammal among the Persian cheetahs,

In fact, the cheetah, as its name implies, is made up of the two words “cheetah” and “leopard”. In Persian, “cheetah” means jumping, hunting and jumping. The name of the Iranian cheetah has long existed in different cultures and places under different names. Today, the Persian cheetah is found only inside Iran. This is very different from leopards. In fact, there are Persian cheetahs in the class of carnivores. In appearance, many spots can be seen on the skin of this group of animals. In other words, the Iranian cheetah in the Iranian wildlife is referred to as a kind of hunting leopard. In other words, a leopard that goes hunting.


The difference between a cheetah and a leopard

As mentioned, the Persian cheetah is very different from the leopard. The appearance of moles on cheetahs and leopards is different. The spots on the cheetah’s skin are round and round.

In terms of size, these two animals are approximately the same size. In leopards, on the other hand, these spots are much larger and hollow. The line on the cheetah’s face is another difference between the two species. The Persian cheetah has a well-trained and elongated body with long arms and legs that facilitates running.

Specifications of Persian Cheetah

The physical characteristics of this feline are such that it has a small head relative to its body. It has long arms and legs, a slim waist and large breasts. There are small corners on the head of this animal. The body of this animal is covered with coarse hair. Generally, the color of the body and hair turns pea-colored and the underside of the abdomen turns white. The famous spots of this animal are covered all over its body except the neck and abdomen. In the face of this beautiful mammal, a black line can be seen that extends from the corner of the eye to its mouth.


Regarding the height and body length of this creature, the range is 140 to 150 cm and its body height is 67 to 94 cm. Environmentalists consider the Persian cheetah to weigh about 20 to 55 kilograms. Of course, the male cheetah is slightly heavier and heavier than the female cheetah.

The Persian cheetah has the ability to run 110 kilometers per hour. Speed ​​was one of the factors that made these cheetahs prefer dry and vast environments to living in forests because of the trees and many obstacles. In a more eloquent language, this animal is an evolved species of feline that has evolved into all of its animal structures, making it an excellent and skilled runner.

Goats, rams, deer, ewes and… are among the feeds of Persian cheetahs.

Specifications of different species of Persian cheetah

Biologically and zoologically, cheetahs are divided into two main classes. There are two categories in this classification. African cheetahs and Asian cheetahs are in these two categories. African cheetahs are better off today than Asian cheetahs. Among the African species, King Cheetah can be seen, which has continuous and large spots.

This is also larger in size than Iran’s wildlife cheetahs. In the Asian species previously seen in the Middle East and India, there was a huge extinction, and today only a few dozen are found in the eastern part of the country alone. They are found in the desert hills of Iran.

The current habitat of the Iranian cheetah in the country

Iranian wildlife today hosts many Iranian animals. This Persian cheetah also lives as a rare species in the same wildlife. The desert plain of Iran, located in provinces such as Kerman, Yazd and Markazi, is the main habitat of this endangered species. Due to the endangered situation of the Iranian cheetah, conditions were considered in order to provide conditions for the care of this species. Today, the national park of Semnan province (Khartouran or Turan park), the national shelter for the blind in Yazd province, the no-hunting area of ​​the Fig Valley in Yazd province are among the important places for keeping Persian cheetahs.


What are the beliefs of the people about the Iranian cheetah?

The Persian cheetah is one of the ecological treasures of the country. This particular species can provide a good opportunity to attract domestic and foreign tourists all over the world. Most people believe that cheetahs have a common ancestor of dogs and cats. Later, naturalists observed the fossils and concluded that with the mutations that occurred in the ancestors of these two classes, fast carnivores called cheetahs entered the natural ecosystem.

The role of Persian cheetahs can be seen in ancient books and inscriptions left from ancient times. In Persian mythology, the cheetah moves away from its element of savagery to the guard and was used to protect and accompany the borders. Mythological stories also mention the placement of a cheetah next to the goddess, who is considered both as a guardian and as his attendant.


Familiarity with the reproductive method of the Iranian cheetah

The Persian cheetah is a class of Iranian animals that has been extensively studied for their fertility and reproduction in order to save them from extinction. The researchers said that female cheetahs can be at the peak of pregnancy for 2 days every two weeks. If the cheetahs get close to each other during this period, the chances of the female cheetah becoming pregnant are very high. The useful life of the Persian cheetah is about 12 to 14 years.

A female cheetah up to 10 to 11 years old can be able to conceive. This class of Iranian wildlife will be able to reproduce in most seasons, but their peak reproductive time is limited to mid-winter. The gestation period of the Iranian cheetah is between 90 and 98 days. Generally, the Iranian cheetah has the ability to give birth to 1 to 4 cheetahs each time it gives birth. Cheetah cubs can act as an adult cheetah after 17 to 18 months and separate from the mother.


The status of the Persian cheetah throughout history

The Persian cheetah is one of the Persian animals that belongs to the category of felines. The type of living environment of these animals has caused their evolution. About 5 million years have passed since the beginning of the origin of the Iranian-cheetah or cheetahs in general. In the history of these animals, the wildlife of Iran has been observed earlier than lions and tigers. The cheetahs were badly damaged and many were destroyed after the ice age.

The Asian cheetahs, who are the ancestors of the Iranian cheetah today, originally lived in areas such as India, Saudi Arabia and Turkmenistan, but gradually Iran’s habitat was limited to the desert plains of Iran and today only a few of these Iranian animals It can be seen in the protected parks of our country.


Cheetah in books

Many Iranian history books have discussed the role of cheetahs and their characteristics. For example, there is a lot to read in Qaboosnameh about breeding and training for cheetah hunting.

Other historical books, such as the history of Bayhaqi, mention that the kings used this class of Iranian animals for hunting, as well as the grandeur of their war system.

Khartouran region is one of the most important and safe areas of Iran’s wildlife. This region, known as Iranian Africa, is one of the habitats of the Iranian cheetah.


Nectar eater is one of the smallest birds of Iran’s wildlife and one of the smallest warm-blooded creatures in the world. This bird lives in the southern provinces, especially in Sistan and Baluchestan province.

Introduction of nectar

Nectar eater is a very small, lively and noisy bird that sucks plant nectar with its long beak and tongue. It weighs about 8 to 9 grams. It also has a beak like a hummingbird. This bird is considered native to Iran and is one of the organisms that are responsible for pollination and reproduction of plants in nature. These birds fly very fast, as if their bodies are fixed in space. Winging in the air and staying still in the air has attracted the attention of photographers and documentarians. This ability to flutter in situ helps them in feeding. This bird plays an important role in moving Iranian pollen in this land. Therefore, it is natural that in order to preserve and protect the native flowers of Iran, its protection is also important.


The nectar eater is about 6 to 10 cm long. Its beak is long and narrow and has a curvature. A long, nectar-like tongue helps him eat. The length of the beak and the amount of curvature have evolved in proportion to the flowers around it. The tail is short and the side feathers on the tail are white at the end.

Nectar-eating claws have three toes on the front and one toe on the back. The paw of this bird is in a way that it can hold its body on a branch in any position. He can walk around a branch or hang from a tree without opening his paw. This feature helps the bird to drink the nectar of the flowers in any situation.


color change

One of the interesting features of nectar eater is the color change of this bird. At birth, both males and females are the same shape; But after a few months, the male bird begins to change color. In this way, the adult male bird changes color to a glossy black in several stages during the summer. In other words, it becomes black with a purple and green glaze. But in winter, like the female, it has brownish-gray feathers on the back and yellow feathers on the abdomen.

Of course, sometimes a red band can be seen on the male bird’s chest, which is the distinguishing feature of the male from the female. Also, during mating, the color of the male feathers is polished and its wings turn purple to attract the female. Nectar eaters have a shiny, purple circumference in the abdomen that extends from the chin to the abdomen.


The nectar eater belongs to the order of sparrows and belongs to the genus Nectar eater. Its scientific name is Nectarinia asiatica or Cinnyris asiaticus.

Nutrition of nectar

Nectar eater, as its name suggests, is so interested in plant nectar that biologists believe that the bird eats more nectar every day. Saline, juniper, silk, acacia, eucalyptus and asparagus trees, which are found in abundance in southern Iran, are the favorite plants of this bird. The red, orange and yellow flowers of this bird seem to attract. In addition to flowers, this warm-blooded animal is also interested in sweet fruits such as berries and grapes.


The nectar eater, if the situation is favorable, sits on a branch and plunges his long beak and tongue into the flower and sucks the nectar of the flowers. But if the flower is at the end of the branch or the size of the flower is small, the bird flutters its wings, holds itself in the air in front of the flower and drinks nectar. He then flies back and pulls his beak out of the mud. That is, it flutters its wings, makes a croaking noise and drops dead. In winter, in the absence of flowers, nectar eater sometimes eats insects and mollusks.


Participation of nectar eater in pollination

The most obvious benefit of nectar in nature is its participation in pollination. Like bees and butterflies, this bird, while trying to eat the nectar of flowers, transfers some pollen that sticks to its head and body from flower to flower and causes plants to multiply.

Unique nectar-eating feature

The nectar eater can be considered one of the few birds that can fly backwards. As mentioned, another feature of this bird is the change in color of the male bird in winter, which can be seen in some other nectar-eating birds. The fluttering speed of this bird is also unparalleled in its kind. He can fly up to 70 times per second. Of course, nectar eater is not the fastest bird, and there is a type of hummingbird that can fill up to 200 times per second.

Distribution of nectar

This bird of Iranian animals is present in a large area of ​​the country. Most of the nectar-eating population lives in the south of Sistan and Baluchestan province. This bird also lives in other southern provinces such as Hormozgan, Bushehr, Kerman, Fars and Khuzestan.


The nectar-eater originally lives in areas such as shrubs, orchards, fields, trees along farms, riverside areas, meadows, tropical groves, and sparse forests of semi-desert areas. Because it is not afraid to live close to humans, it sometimes chooses urban parks for its habitat. For example, a study found that a large number of these species live in the Laleh Coastal Park in Ahvaz, which has a high diversity of plant species.

Nectar-eating nest

One of the charms of this bird’s life is its special nesting shape. To build the nest, the female nectar eater selects a branch hanging from a lemon tree, next to a honeycomb, and hangs her nest in the shape of a hanging oval from the tree. The entrance of this nest is installed next to it. In building the nest, nectar eater uses date fibers and soft twigs of wheat or other plants.


The female lays 2 to 3 eggs in late autumn and early winter, which are much smaller than the eggs of other birds. The chicks hatch after 16 to 17 days.

Omar Shahdakhvar

This bird normally lives up to 5 years, but has been recorded in captivity for up to 22 years.

The role of the nectar eater in nature

Every animal in the world has an important and effective role for the survival of its ecosystem. The nectar eater, like other animals, plays an important role in the survival of its environment. He eats the nectar of the flowers and moves to other places, causing the pollen to disperse. He even helps to do this while eating nectar.


Butterflies of Iran

Iranian butterflies have long played a significant role in the nature and culture of this ecosystem. When it comes to Iranian wildlife and animals, few people think of Iranian butterflies. Due to the geographical location of Iran, its vastness and climate, there is a variety of different species of butterflies in it. In this article, we have tried the anatomical structure and flight of butterflies, the power of vision and how this insect breathes, their habits, behavior and diet, the classification of butterflies in terms of their activity, the life cycle of this insect, their presence throughout the history of the earth. Types of butterflies in Iran, famous butterflies in Iran, photos of butterflies, the role of butterflies in nature, longevity, habitat and distribution of butterflies in Iran, threats, butterflies in people’s beliefs, the presence of this insect in Iranian literature, its designs on pottery, handicrafts , Persian carpets and kilims to be paid.

The most striking anatomical feature of butterflies is their wings. They are made of a very thin, transparent substance called chitin, which is stretched over a series of vein-like structures. The veins in the delicate wings of the butterflies support them. Also. The veins carry blood to this part of the body to feed the wings. Butterflies use prongs to determine their direction and position.

Butterflies fly

Butterflies can only fly if their body temperature is above 23 degrees Celsius. To fly, the insect spreads its wings in the sun to keep warm. As the moths age, the color of the wings fades and the wings do not have the power and efficiency they once had.

 The visual power of butterflies

Butterflies use color vision when searching for flowers. They play an important role in the ecosystem due to the movement of Iranian pollen. It is natural that the presence of butterflies is necessary and important to protect the native flowers of Iran.


Classification of licenses in terms of their activity

Butterflies are divided into two groups according to their life activity: flight day and night flight. These two groups are easily identified due to their body structure. Moths or moths and moths are brown, gray, black and white. While the day of the flight has a variety of wonderful bright colors.

Types of Iranian butterflies

There are about twenty thousand species of butterflies in the world. Of these butterfly species, 442 species have been identified and introduced in 5 families or families and 17 subfamilies in Iran.

The five species of butterflies in Iran include finches, partridges, partridges, partridge butterflies and partridges. Each of these butterflies is named based on their appearance, index characteristics and place of origin or habitat.


Famous butterflies of Iran

White tiger butterfly:

The wings of this butterfly are white, the veins are black and the margins of the wings are black, which gives the butterfly a tiger-like shape. The distribution of this insect in Iran is in the south of Iran in the provinces of Khuzestan and Bushehr.

Lemon butterfly species:

It is one of the most beautiful butterflies in Iran. The distribution of this insect in Iran is in the provinces of Gilan and Mazandaran. This butterfly is all lemon colored.


Helios Butterfly:

This is a white butterfly with black spots. There is a red ace on both wings. The distribution of this insect in Iran is in Bushehr and Golestan provinces.

Orange Tip Butterfly Species:

In this butterfly, orange appears on the upper wing of the male butterfly. The distribution of this beautiful insect is in Iran, Gilan, Mazandaran and Zagros provinces.

White Mountain Butterfly:

As the name implies, this butterfly lives in the mountainous regions of Alborz and Azerbaijan. This butterfly is white, without any black spots. Only at the end of the wings and their margins is the black color that gives this insect the margins of seven and eight.

Lifespan of butterflies

The lifespan of butterflies is generally very short. Their lifespan varies according to their size, climate change, species. Iranian butterflies have a lifespan of ten days to two months. Of course, there are species that appear in late summer, hide in a suitable place in winter and fly again in spring. The lifespan of these licenses is about 6 months.


Butterflies in people’s beliefs

Among the earlier communities, the butterfly life cycle was each a special symbol. The worm is a symbol of life, the cocoon, the sign of death, the pupa is a symbol of resurrection and the butterfly is a symbol of soul and liberation. According to the beliefs of the people in ancient Greece and Rome, the spirit that comes out of a dead body is in the form of a butterfly.

Butterfly in Iranian literature

In Iranian literature, the butterfly is a symbol of true love and sacrifice. In Iranian literature, the butterfly dies and turns to ashes at the feet of the beloved, which is light. In the thirst of this love, he does not complain to anyone. He does not get help from anyone. He cherishes burning in the way of the beloved like a sweet soul. In most of the verses of Parsigo poets, the butterfly has been used in this symbol and has been repeated many times.

Butterfly designs on pottery and handicrafts

Iranians are tasteful people. Nature and its beauties have always been seen in Iranian art. Meanwhile, Parvaneh, with its remarkable beauty, is not far from Iranian art. Its role is seen in inlaying, tiling, in the weaving of fabrics, carpets, handicrafts, pottery, etc.

Among the Baloch people, Parvaneh is called Baluk. In the beliefs of the Baloch people, the butterfly is a symbol of spirituality. In the popular culture of the Baloch people, the butterfly is a sacred insect that seeks light. When he finds the light, he does not leave it and turns around and sacrifices his life like crazy. Butterfly motifs can be seen in the pottery of Balochistan from the past to the present.

In the handicrafts of Gilan province called Charshoo, Chador Shab and Chashoo – a woven fabric with various and beautiful colors, which is fastened on the waist of women – butterfly designs can be seen.


Butterfly designs on carpets and kilims in different cities of Iran

Butterfly designs can be seen in abundance in the carpets of Kurdistan, Ardabil, Jiroft, North Khorasan, etc. It indicates the abundance of this insect in these areas. In Kurdish culture, the butterfly in kilims is a symbol of rebirth, soul and beauty, which is seen in kilims with and without horns.

In North Khorasan, in the Kermanji dialect – one of the main dialects of the Kurdish language – Parvaneh, I have a name. In North Khorasan, the butterfly is a symbol of beauty, purity and chastity. Also, this insect is a symbol of beautiful and romantic life. For this reason, it can be seen in abundance in the handicrafts of this province, especially in kilims, with beautiful designs. Due to the taste of the weaver, sometimes this simple insect is sometimes woven abstractly and sometimes with many details.

In Ardabil and Azerbaijan, Parvaneh is called Kopank in the Azeri dialect. In the kilims of these provinces, the role of butterflies is not seen in the old kilims. Most of the butterfly role can be seen in the kilims of Moghan region.


Caracal (Lynx)

Caracal or lynx is one of the most beautiful native species of Iran. This animal from the Iranian wildlife family is a subfamily of small cats. In this article, we have tried to look at the characteristics, characteristics, differences with taste, habitat and diet, its distribution in the world and Iran, reproduction, behavior and habits, communication and perception of this animal, longevity, threats and role of this animal. To be dealt with in nature. The origins of the name Caracal, its presence in Iranian literature, history and civilization, and the photo of the lynx (Caracal) have also been discussed.


Lynx (caracal), a cat from the history and civilization of Iran

Iran was once the cat’s paradise in the world. After the extinction of the Mazandaran tiger and the Persian lion, eight human cats including the cheetah, the sand cat, the palace cat, the lynx, the wild cat, the forest cat and the caracal remain in Iran. If left untreated, these cats, especially cheetahs and caracals, will become extinct. Due to the historical antiquity of this animal in the past of Iran, there is a desert called Caracal in Yazd.

Iranian caracal

Caracal is perhaps the most beautiful wild cat in Iran. They are very beautiful animals, which are successful in hunting birds due to their long jump.


Caracal appearance

Caracal body weight is between 16 to 22 kg. The female is smaller and weighs less than 13 kg. While males can even weigh up to 20 kg.

The smallest adult lynx is larger than most domestic cats. Although their tails are short, they still make up a significant portion of their body length.

Skin color varies between burgundy, henna, gray, copper, and khaki. The legs of the lynx are relatively long and the hind legs are disproportionate to its height. The eye color of this rare animal varies from gold or copper to green or gray.

Caracal habitat

Dry steppes, semi-desert areas, bushes, plains, rocky hills and sparsely forested forests are the habitat of caracal. Lynx is rarely seen in evergreen areas and mountain forests. This animal prefers dry climate with minimal foliage. Lynx habitat in Iran is desert and semi-desert areas, especially on the edge of the central desert.

 Caracal food and bait

These beautiful cats hunt carnivores and often animals weighing less than 5 kg. The bulk of their diet consists of rabbits, rats, rodents, small monkeys and birds. Pigeons, and especially in Iran, partridges are the favorite food of this native animal of Iran. The main components of their diet vary according to geography

Global distribution of caracal

Caracals are mostly distributed in Africa, Central Asia and southwest Asia. The range of their presence is associated with cheetahs. These two animals live in desert areas at the same time. Both animals are on the verge of extinction in Iran.


Distribution of caracal in Iran

Lynxes are mostly found in the central part of Iran and some parts of the central and southern Zagros in the plains. They are mostly observed in Fars, Kerman, Baluchistan, Khorasan. In fact, the southernmost border of the distribution of this species is in the cities of Estahban, Neyriz and Bahramgor region and the northernmost is in North Khorasan province. The westernmost reports were from Lynx in Ilam and Lorestan provinces and the easternmost were in South Khorasan. The best habitat for lynx in Iran is the Abbasabad Nain Protected Area.

Caracal reproduction

One of the interesting things about these animals is that they can mate at any time of the year. But most mating takes place between August and December so that the kittens are born in the summer. Before mating, the males are informed of their readiness for mating through chemical signals in the females’ urine.

Caracal behavior and habits

The fascination of the issue is that they have a solitary life, they are only seen in mating. Both sexes of this animal maintain their territory and scope of activity. These cats maintain a relatively large territory relative to their size.

Caracal longevity

Reliable lifespan has not been reported for wild caracals. If they are well cared for in captivity, their lifespan can be around 20 years. The maximum lifespan of a lynx in captivity is reported to be between 3 and 20 years. Their average lifespan in the wild is estimated at 12 years.

Rooting the name Caracal or Lynx

The name caracal has its roots in the Turkish term qara-qūlāq / kara-kūlāk meaning black ear. In Persian, called the tassel, this animal is also called. The name tassel is due to the growth of black hair at the tips of the corners, which resembles a tassel.

Lynx or caracal in Iranian literature

In the ancient and classical texts of Persian literature in Iran and even in the scientific texts, apparently, an animal was referred to as oblong and oblong, and separate animal divisions were not considered for these two animals. From its documents, we can refer to Saadi’s works, which mean the same as caracal. (They said that the lynx gave you the baby’s service, he said: I will eat it until the waste is caught. Also in the old texts of the parrot written by Zia-ud-Din Nakhshbi in the eighth century AH, Lynx means caracal. But in other literary works, Lynx means lynx. There are various verses from different poets with the word and love.

 Old Lynx Names in Iranian Literature

The old letters of Caracal in Iranian literature are Parvaneh, Parvanak, Franak, Anaqa al-Ard, Tafah, Qarah Qulagh (Turkish word) and Shatershir. These letters are related to the ecological connection of this animal with the lion. Although caracals are both hunters and prey, they are not hunted by world-renowned predators like lions and hyenas.

In areas where the two organisms live side by side, there is a close connection between the two. The lynx is placed next to the milk for feeding. The lynx, on the other hand, detects prey and prey for milk from a great distance from its very strong sense of smell. This subject has been described and retold in Iranian literature in the form of poems and stories. This indicates the abundance of milk and caracal in Iran.

In Iranian literature, caracal is also known as the lion owl because it walks and sings before the lion so that other animals will be aware of the lion’s arrival.

Caracal in the ancient history and civilization of Iran and the world

In the ancient civilizations of Iran (India, part of Iran) and Egypt, the caracal was a royal animal and belonged to the royal family. In Pars (Iran) this animal was trained to catch game birds, rabbits, foxes, jabirs and deer. In ancient Iran, a competition was held to test caracal skill by placing the cat among a flock of flying pigeons. To determine how many pigeons the flying pigeon crashes

Rayton, takuk or caramel-shaped drink cup

Rayton Caracal holding a rooster in his paw. In this Raytheon, Caracal’s rage and audacity are clearly visible. This material is made of silver and gold. This beautiful sculpture is now housed in the Miho Museum in Japan and is on public display. It belongs to the Parthian period and its place of origin is Iran.

In fact, a Parthian silver reton with a black head made of silver. Delicate gold ornaments can be seen on it. The height of the silver reton is 27.5 cm. On the front of it is the head of a lynx with striking details. It is housed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. It originated in Iran.

Simin Lynx takuk, Achaemenid-style takuk, Greek-shaped lynx head and inscriptions on takuk are also in Aramaic. This Rayton indicates that Maliki had a Parthian lynx. This tekuk is made of silver and its edges are decorated with gold. Its height is about 24 and its width is about 40 cm and diameter: 12.2 cm.

Parthian Lynx Simin Tekuk is housed in the Giplegt Museum, Los Angeles. It was built in northwestern Iran 2,000 years ago


Boar (wild boar)

The boar is one of the native animals of Iran, which belongs to the order of our pair. This animal is distributed in most parts of Iran, including the wildlife of Iran. This animal is also known as wild boar. In this article, the physical characteristics, diet, reproduction, distribution, habitat, behavior and habits, communication and perceptions, natural predators and their effects on nature and threats of this animal are discussed. This article also deals with the origins of the name of the boar, the presence of the boar in Persian literature and the history of Iranian civilization, the symbol of the boar in the world and the historical monuments left of the boar.

Boar, a useful animal for the forest

Domestic pigs are domesticated species of boars that were domesticated in areas such as Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and northern Iraq about 9,000 years ago, depending on geographical locations. DNA evidence from the fossil remains of the teeth and jaws of Neolithic pigs shows that the first domestic pigs in Europe were brought from the Middle East. Wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as wild boar.

Boar appearance

These animals have large heads, small eyes, long snouts, and relatively short legs. Boar hair color in teens and children is lighter with brown lines. But as you get older, these lines fade and your hair color darkens. The body height of this animal up to the shoulder is 90 cm (35 inches). The average weight of boars is between 60 and 70 kg

Boar diet

From sunrise to sunset, pigs are mainly looking for food. They search and eat roots among the leaf litter and moist soil of forested areas with their hard snouts. The main diet of boars consists of plant materials such as seeds, fruits, roots and young plants. However, they eat almost anything. Their animal foods also include invertebrates such as insects, earthworms, snails and vertebrates such as fish, rodents, frogs and lizards, and the carcasses of large animals.

Boar reproduction

The age of 18 months is known as the sexual maturity of this animal. A male can mate with 5 to 10 females. Males fight for females. After mating, the male boar leaves the herd. The male boar has no responsibility for raising the children.

Boar distribution in Iran

Boars are distributed in forested areas, forests, bushes and plains of Iryan regions including Gilan, Mazandaran, Gorgan, Khorasan, Azerbaijan, Kurdistan, Kermanshah, Hamedan, Lorestan, Khuzestan and Sistan and Baluchestan.

Boar habitat

Boars prefer waterlogged areas with long vegetation. In Iran, boars are mostly found in swampy areas, deciduous forests, groves, reeds and bushes, along rivers and swamps.

It is also native to the bushes of southeastern Iran, especially in the oak forests of the Alborz and Zagros mountains. Although boars prefer densely vegetated, swampy vegetation, it has been found in relatively open plains in the Arjan Plain in southern Iran and among wild pistachio trees.


Boar nails are long, ready to fight if the nails are in danger on the ground. With the exception of older males that live alone, other wild boars live in groups. They are usually social animals. Their lifespan is more than 15 years.

These animals love muddy areas and wetlands. This moist and muddy environment plays an important role in removing their parasites, keeping their bodies cool in the heat and protecting their sensitive skin from the sun’s harmful rays. Their sense of smell is well developed, as far as this animal is concerned in Germany. Used to diagnose drugs. Their sense of hearing is excellent. Their vision is relatively poor and they have no colored vision. Boars are one of the four known mammals in the world that have a body resistant to snake venom.

The boar produces different sounds, which are divided into three main categories:

The sound of contact between each other

Boar name

The scientific name of Susscrofa and Wild Boar is the English name of this animal. This animal is found in Avesta Varaza, next to Varaz, in Armenian Varz, and in Kurdish. The names of some Iranian cities, such as Borazjan, indicate that there was a boar in that area before. Among the celebrities and princes of ancient Iran, some names have been combined with Varazeh. Among them, we can mention Varazbandeh, Varazdat, Varazdokht, Varazson, Varazpirooz, Varazmehr, Varaznarsi. In ancient Iran, the name Baraz or boar showed strength, courage and bravery.

Due to some behavioral characteristics of this animal during the attack, the name Boar is mentioned in the nominal composition of some historical figures and warlords. Especially in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, at the beginning of the story of Bijan and Manijeh, the names of a number of heroes and historical figures are mentioned under the name of Garazeh.

Boar in Iranian literature

In Persian literature, the boar, whose name is derived from the Avestan root Voraz, is the same as the male pig. In Persian literature, this animal has been used in contradictory meanings. So that sometimes it is a manifestation of power, delusion and strength and sometimes it means filth, humiliation, greed and arrogance. Also in classical Iranian literature, this animal is an allusion to the tyrant and oppressor.

The word boar is abundant in the verses of various poets such as Ferdowsi, Asadi, Farrokhi, Manouchehri, Naser Khosrow, etc.

Boar in the history and civilization of the world and Iran

One of the favorite animals of the kings of Iran in hunting grounds has been chased due to its high speed. In some parts of Europe and India, the animal is still hunted by dogs.

The characteristics of this animal, like it in literature, are also contradictory in Iranian history and civilization. On the one hand, it is a symbol of fearlessness and victory, and on the other hand, it means unbridled and unbridled. In the cult of the animal, this animal was a sacred animal. In the mural of the temple of Mitra in Dora Europus (a city on the Euphrates in the Seleucid period) there is an image of a god who is hunting deer with the sacred animals, namely snakes, lions and boars.

Images of animals such as horses, bears, lions, boars, and bulls were Zoroastrian divinities. So that this animal in Avesta is associated with the sun. Bahram is also one of the most important gods of Zoroastrianism, which sometimes manifests itself in the form of sharp boars. In ancient Iran, this animal is mostly depicted on seals and plasterwork in half or in full combat with soldiers or the king. The head of this animal is an embodiment of Warthog, the god of war and victory.

In the Sassanid period, in addition to seals and plaster, this role has also been drawn on the stone porch of Bostan arch, which shows the scene of collective hog hunting by Khosro Parviz. In the scene of the lithographic hunting of the Great Porch of Taghbestan, the king and his companions are hunting boars that have been driven from the swamps into the reeds by the Philbanians. At the bottom of the frame, the crew is shredding the hunted boars. In ancient Iran, the meat of this animal is eaten.

Remains of the role of the boar

In a plate, the image of Khosrow II (628-590 AD) is drawn while hunting. This plate is kept in the National Library of Paris. The image of Khosrow Dehim has a winged plate on his head and a very precious garment and a necklace of pearls around his neck. Khosrow throws a bow into the gutter and runs on four horseshoes chasing elusive animals. His royal bands are shaken by the wind. A few boars and deer and a wild cow were shot down by his arrow and fell to the ground. In Bostan, the straw-skinned skin of this animal was used to train birds of prey, because the hunting of this animal was considered by Persian kings.

Another plate in which King Bahram I, with a hat adorned with ram branches, strikes a male horse riding on a reed, which is hidden among the reeds and intends to attack him. In this war, the king has placed his sword on the back of the animal, along with a kind of dignity and confidence. The plate is now housed in the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Parthian boar statue, obtained from Pir Kooh Amarloo – from Siahkal city of Gilan province – is kept in the treasury of the National Museum.


Quebec is a beautiful, medium-sized terrestrial bird, found in the wild in the mountains. Quebec plays an important role in the animal cycle of Iran. These birds belong to the pheasant family (Phasianidae). This article describes the appearance, habitat, global distribution, reproduction and characteristics of their eggs, diet, Quebec voice and صدا, their habits and behavior, types of Quebec species in Iran such as partridge, their role in nature and threats to these birds. It has been studied in Iranian wildlife. This article also deals with people’s beliefs about this bird, tracing the roots of the name and types of Persian names of this bird, its presence in Iranian literature, its role in Jiroft kilim and pottery, and hunting this bird.

Quebec, a beautiful bird of the mountains and plains of Iran

There are several species of partridge around the world, the most famous of which are: Alectoris Chukar partridge, Alectoris graeca partridge and European red-footed partridge (Alectoris rufa). The species in Iran are more than part of the partridge ( Chukar) .


Appearance characteristics of Quebec

There are different types of partridges. Depending on the breed and species of these birds, their physical characteristics vary. Most of the feathers of these birds are brown, khaki, gray and white. These colors allow them to camouflage in nature. So it is difficult to see them in nature. These birds have short legs and a short tail and a small, headless head. The beaks of these birds are short and thick.

Quebec Habitat

This beautiful bird usually lives in treeless places and so-called open and mostly in the mountains. These birds rarely climb tree branches. They also have habitats in areas such as pastures, wetland margins, barren lands and sand dunes.

Reproduction of Quebec

Mating of these birds takes place in late March and April. However, due to the cold geographical regions of Iran, the mating season may occur in June and early July. These birds reproduce once a year, depending on the environmental conditions in which they live.


Quebec diet

The partridges prefer the green stems of plants to eat. But they also feed on insects such as locusts, dragonflies and worms, seeds, small fruits such as grapes, grains, grasses, tree leaves and anything else edible.


Quebec from a close view

Types of Quebec species in Iran

There are six species of Quebec family in Iran, the genus of this family in Iran includes the genus Genus tetraogallus. These species are:


  •  Quebec Dari

Quebec Dari is a native bird of Iran in a large area of ​​the Alborz mountain range in northern Iran, in parts of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, in Ardal, Farsan and Lordegan cities, in Tang Sayad protected area near Shahrekord, in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces. Dena is scattered in North Khorasan province in Sarani and Qarkhod protected areas and in East Azarbaijan province in Dizmar Arasbaran protected area. This bird is on the verge of extinction. Quebec Dari has been selected as the symbol of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province by the Environmental Protection Organization.

This bird is very shy and cautious and it is very difficult to approach. Feeling more dangerous, it flies quickly to the top of the mountain.

  •  Quebec Tihu or Quebec Sandy

Tihu is one of the native birds of Iran. Their size is 23 to 25 cm. This species is smaller than other partridges. Sandy partridge is more common in mountainous areas and plains. Their legs are yellow and their beaks are reddish-yellow or orange.

  • Quebec Chokar

The appearance of Quebec Chokar distinguishes it from other birds. This feature is a black line that starts at the front of the head and ends at the top of the chest after passing through the eyes and neck. This partridge is a native animal of Iran and is found in most parts of Iran.

  • Partridge gray or chill

This partridge is called Chile in Iran. The gray partridge, although a native animal of Iran, is endangered. This type of partridge lives in groups of 15 to 20.

This species is one of the most famous breeds of Quebec, which is also known as the Hungarians or even the Huns. This bird lives mostly around wetlands and sand dunes. This species is more common in Arasbaran (a large mountainous region in the north of East Azerbaijan province).

  • Quebec

One of the characteristics of this type of Quebec male is black feathers with longitudinal white spots. This species has a collar with oak feathers on the neck. In Iran, the population of this bird is endangered. This bird is called Sistanpour. Quebec Drage is found in Iran in Miankaleh Wetland in Mazandaran, Turkmen Sahara Plain in Golestan, Moghan Arasbaran Plain, Khabar National Park, Mehrovieh Wildlife Sanctuary, Dez and Karkheh Protected Areas.

  •  Quebec Jirofti

Jiroft quail is 30 cm long. The color of this bird is brown. The forehead and the upper band of the eye are oak. But it does not have an oak spot on the back of the neck, it looks like a female drag

It is relatively abundant in its habitats in the southern regions of the country. This bird is among the protected birds and the uncontrolled hunting of this type of bird has put it in danger of extinction.

The role of Quebec in nature

One of the most effective natural ways to control plant pests, including dangerous pests of grain fields such as wheat, are partridges. Indiscriminate hunting of birds such as Quebec has led to a sharp decline in the population of natural enemies of this dangerous pest of wheat and barley.

People’s beliefs about Quebec

In the beliefs of the Iranian people, eating Quebec meat cures and cures many diseases.

Quebec in world and Persian literature

In Persian literature, mourning and mourning, compassion and pacifism, laughter and laughter of Quebec and going under the snow are very famous. Its abundant presence in the poems of Persian poets in different periods of time indicates that this bird is a native animal of Iran and has a wide geographical spread in Iran.

Quebec motifs in Kerman kilim

Quebec is known as Kog or Kogo in the local term of Kerman. The role of this bird is sometimes seen in the margins and sometimes in the text of Kerman kilims, especially Jiroft kilims. In addition to the image of this bird, the Quebec eye can also be seen with a very small role in the margins of the kilims and in the horizontal stripes of the striped kilims.

This eye pattern is similar to a six-pointed flower and is woven in red in some hand-woven items. To look exactly like the Quebec eye. Due to its abundance in the Jiroft region, Quebec is easily caught by hunters. Due to eating meat, eggs and feathers are important in the livelihood of people living in these areas. That is why its designs show themselves in kilims. Some theories say that Quebec is a symbol of fertility and fertility in the designs of carpets and kilims.

Quebec on ancient Iranian pottery

Due to its characteristics, Quebec, its image in pottery is somewhat recognizable among other birds on the dishes. Quebec is found in pea color in pottery.