Native plants of Iran

Iran is a country of four seasons. Due to the special geographical location of Iran, its location between two seas, its special topography and many other factors, special and unique animal and plant species can be found everywhere in our country, Iran. Iran’s plant diversity is so vast that it makes it unique among other countries in the Middle East. In this article, we try to acquaint you with some rare species of native plants of Iran

Iran is very rich in vegetation due to its great climatic diversity and unique topography. In fact, every part of the country has its own plant. Desert areas have saline plants and foothills have foothills. In fact, currently about 2500 native plant species have been identified in Iran, only a few of which have been studied. In the following, we will introduce some of the most famous native plants of the country to you.

Parrotia persica

Surely, you have passed by this tree many times, regardless of its name and symbol, and you have enjoyed its beauty. Because this plant is specific to the foothills of Alborz. If you have traveled to the north of the country during the autumn deciduous season, you must have seen extremely beautiful trees whose leaves have several colors at the same time. Green, pink, purple, yellow, orange and red are the colors that the leaves of this beautiful tree take on in autumn.

The name of this tree in English is “Parrotia Persica” or “Persian iron wood”. The plant was named after a German botanist and tourist who had traveled to the region to study the difference in altitude between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. As the English name of this tree suggests, this unique species is one of the endemic plants of Iran.

In addition to its beautiful leaves, the evangelical tree has other interesting features. The trunk of this tree, in addition to being very beautiful and winding, has a very hard and strong wood. Due to the excessive hardness of this wood, it can not be used in industry. The red flowers of this tree, which grow every year in March, are another attraction of this tree. These flowers do not have petals and grow like rubies on the branches of a plant.

The evangelical tree has become very popular in the world. In Europe, for example, they use it to decorate their gardens. This tree is one of the most important plant species in the country that undoubtedly needs more care.

Fritillaria persica

One of the plants that has been mentioned even in the mythological legends of the country, is the inverted tulip. As the name implies, the flowers of this amazing plant grow downwards. This flower is also called Maryam tears and the reason is that the tears and nectar of the plant overflow from inside. According to Iranian legends, when Siavash was beheaded by Gracevus, Laleh Vazhgon was present and witnessed this sad incident, and since then he has lowered his head to mourn Siavash.

The inverted Iranian tulip is another example of a native plant of Iran that usually begins to grow in spring and May. The slopes of the Zagros Mountains are the best place for these plants to grow and can be seen in different areas of Isfahan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Lorestan, Ilam and Kermanshah.

The height of this flower from the ground sometimes reaches more than 120 cm. Due to the fact that this plant is one of the endangered species, today the Environmental Protection Organization has good programs in place to preserve it.

Crocus gilanicus

Iranian saffron is also called Iranian red gold. This plant is one of the native plants of Iran and one of the most valuable species in the country, which also has a high export value. Saffron is normally grown in tropical regions, but saffron has also been seen in cities such as Hamedan and Gilan. Flowering of saffron and its harvest season is autumn. This plant has many medicinal properties and is used in various industries

Susan Chelcheragh / Lilium ledebourii

One of the most famous native plants of Iran is Susan Chelcheragh. This flower is one of the most valuable species of lily in the world and is known in the world as “Lilium ledebourii”. Susan Chelcheragh is very important for the country. This endemic plant of the country was registered in 1976 as the first national flower of Iran in the list of national monuments.

It is a matter of pride that this flower grows naturally only in two parts of the world, both of which are part of the Iranian plateau. Talesh region of Iran and Azerbaijan and Damash of Gilan province. The only protected habitat of this plant in Iran is a 4-hectare area near Damash village in Gilan. This area has an altitude ranging from 1750 to 2000 meters above sea level.

Fortunately, the country’s environmental protection organization protects this rare and wonderful species well, so that their growing area is separated by fences from other places, and their permission is required to exploit them.

This flower, like the inverted tulip, is an inverted flower and its petals grow outwards and downwards. The height of this flower varies from 50 to 150 cm above the ground. The lily of the valley was discovered by the German scientist and botanist Friedrich von Ledbour in the village of Damash, Gilan. The reason for the English name of this flower is the same German scientist. The lifespan of lily of the valley is very short and they can be seen for a month from mid-June.

Iris meda

Among the lily flowers, a species of Persian lily is found, which belongs to the category of rhizome bearded lilies. This type of iris has smooth, linear leaves and cream-yellow flowers with different tonalities and combined with white. The petals are wavy and have black hairs and a brown and golden halo in the middle, with a cylindrical ovary in the middle. Its final inflorescence is another characteristic of this beautiful flower. The areas where this flower can be seen are between Sari and Azerbaijan. The most interesting thing about the Iranian lily is that it was discovered by an Australian tourist named Pollack, who noticed the differences and similarities between these native Iranian plants and the iris Iris Chamaeiris. In June, you can see the flowering of this plant and its main production is in the north of the country from East to Central Azerbaijan. This flower grows on mountains and among rocks and soils without grass cover and has been a great inspiration for Iranian poets.

Cyclamen persicum

Again, we will introduce one of the flowers of northern Iran. Nagonsar flower is one of the native plants of Iran which is famous for C. persicum. If you are looking for Iranian primrose in winter, you can find this plant in the northern regions of our country. Although it is mostly found in the western parts of the Mediterranean Sea, but in Iran, its native type is also spectacular. Unripe flowers are seen in different colors such as red, white and pink, brown and purple. This flower is found at the foot of trees with broad leaves and is a perennial herbaceous plant of the genus Primrose. The lower part of the stem (hypocotyl) thickens and clumps near the soil surface


This plant is one of the evergreen plants that does not change color in all seasons and does not have autumn. In summer, it must be placed in the shade and away from the sun. Its needle-shaped leaves and strange fruit give this plant a funny and fancy look. Its red fruits, although poisonous, are part of bird food, but be aware that eating the fruit is dangerous to humans. Today, this plant is one of the houseplants and is expanding commercially, which prevents its extinction. The yew plant is in the order of pines and is one of the native plants of Iran.

Viola Odorata

We have all seen the violet flower in the parks and we are familiar with it. Iranian violet flower is actually a native flower of northern Iran and grows by car in the humid area of ​​our country, but due to its commercial production, today we can see this beautiful flower in all parks of our country. Violet is a perennial and generally biennial plant that is planted both by seed and by division of the plant in late summer. This flower has 5 petals and can be seen from late winter to late spring. This flower is seen in dark purple, white and other colors and has a very fragrant scent. Scented violets are usually planted with tricolor violets to both create a good aroma in the space and create a more beautiful view.

Golden Cup

Sternbergia or Golden Cup is one of the plants that have onions and flowers in autumn and has eight known species. Other names are Narges Payizeh, Susan Dasht, Sardeh, Narges Zemstaneh and Gol Hasrat Zard Payizeh. Although the number of species is small, but this small number is very widespread and extends from southwestern Europe to southwestern Asia. It usually grows in sandy soils and good drainage of the planting bed, periods of dry heat in summer and calcareous soils are recommended for flowering. It is propagated by planting onions during their dormancy period in late summer or early autumn. Of course, it can be propagated using its onions when the leaves are gone, ie in late spring. There are only three species of it in Iran, but unfortunately all of these species are endangered.

Golden Cup of Autumn

Cyrus’ Golden Cup

Golestan Golden Cup

Golden Cup

Blue star

Blue star or silage is an onion plant. Blue star can be found in the highlands of beech forests between 800 and 2000 meters or higher in Gilan province and adjacent areas in Azerbaijan province. Usually these flowers have a glass-like shape, but if they do not get enough light, the shape of the petals becomes horizontal. Blue star is resistant to cold. It is possible to propagate the sila plant by its seeds, and it is also possible to plant its bulbs at a depth of 8-10 cm in late summer or early autumn when the plant is dormant.

Persian Blue Star

Numerous relatively small flowers of this species are located in a long cluster. It is found in the wet meadows of Kurdistan and the flowering season is May.

Najm Abi Gilani

Gilani blue star or Caucasian blue star is another type of blue star of this rare plant in Iran.

Back-lip Najm Abi

Blue-bellied starlings are found in the Caspian forests and often in crevices in rock walls. Its flowering season is April.


Sanblak Chalous

This rare species of rare plant in Iran is in the genus of crow and has been seen only in Chalous valley. It grows at an altitude of 300 to 1100 meters at the edge of the cliffs and in March and April. The beautiful blue color of this small flower attracts attention. The onion of this rare plant in Iran gives only one flower, which rarely reaches a height of 30 cm.

Dogtooth violet

Dental dog flowers are among the flowers that have various species. For example, about 25 species of this flower have been found in temperate regions of Asia, North America and Europe alone. In Iran, a new species has been seen that grows only in the northern region of Alborz and among beech trees. The onion has this flower in two leaves and flowers from January to April. Toothpick flower in Iran is a species of violet toothed flower that is scientifically known as Erythronium caucasicum.

Buxus hyrcaniaz

Although this plant was found in abundance in the forests of northern Iran in the past, but now it is in the endangered plants. This tree is one of the evergreen and shady trees that reaches a height of about 9 meters and a trunk half a meter in diameter. The history of this tree dates back to the Mesozoic era and about 136 million years ago, but now it is in danger of extinction due to fungal diseases and indiscriminate felling of this tree. In ancient times, most Iranians planted a boxwood tree in their yard and it is considered as one of the popular trees. This tree also has very good wood.

Crocus biflorus

All of us Iranians use saffron on rice or in any other food or we are familiar with saffron flowers which are purple in color. However, other species of saffron flowers can be found in our vast Iran. It is a type of saffron flower called double saffron that comes out of an onion with two saffron flowers. This saffron flower is white and has dark purple stripes on the outside of its petals. The beautiful flower of Dugleh saffron is one of the rare plants in Iran that grows only in the upper elevations of northern and western Iran on rocky slopes and ruins. This flower, unlike purple saffron, blooms in March, April and May.

Ophrys kojurensis

Bain, one should be really proud of having it and be proud that such a flower is of local value in our northern region !! It is from Mazandaran. It is one of the few orchids in Iran and in the biology and botany of this flower and the method of its pollination is very important and is classified as a strange plant.

In this way, this flower evolved into a female bee to attract attention and be cute for its special pollinator, and by simulating some organs and sex close to a bee’s skin and secreting a special pheromone, it really becomes a The female bee settles, until the male insect, thinking that a female insect has netted, performs the fertilization process with her, and with this operation, when she goes a little farther for fertilization with another flower, she takes the pollen of the previous flower with her to the new flower. This is how the flower is pollinated and we are really proud to host this valuable plan


 Rosa Persica

Of course, you are all familiar with roses. It is interesting to know that all modern roses produced in the friendly and vector country of the Netherlands are grafted on Iranian mother bases like Nastaran !!! This is where we are both happy with this hosting and regret why the light that goes to the house should be hung in the Netherlands !!! About 140 years ago, the bases of this plant were sent from Iran for planting in Luxembourg Park, Paris. Yes, our friends We import our roses from the Netherlands while we can be the largest producer of roses in the world. Well, let’s skip it. This beautiful flower belongs to the rose family and is native to Iran. It has yellow flowers with a red center, it is very fragrant and the diameter of the flowers is It is 3 cm on average and grows to a height of 50 to 60 cm. It has yellow and red colors. Due to its incompatibility, this flower prefers to be pollinated again, that is, to pollinate with flowers similar to itself but different, so its flower has turned yellow with a red to black center to attract insects! In addition, it is one of the few species. Yellow roses are natural

Colutea persica

Another shrub and poisonous plant of the Baqalasanan family or our own Fabaceae. This plant grows mostly in the south of Iran. It has butterfly flowers and hollow yellow color. Summer occurs at least in the Karaj region. Its leaves, like the acacia tree, are small and oval and green in compound branches. This plant was named in 1846 by the Frenchman Pierre Edmund Boucher.


Hedera Pastachuvii

You have seen a lot of love in parks, in houses, in shady and blind places, and sometimes we have seen the pest of bedbugs and oysters. And the oppressed look into the eyes of the grass if it can produce high humidity.

Give it a lot of softness to the environment. Friends of this plant may have become a cliché, but when Know a species of this beautiful plant native to Iran and the forests of northern Iran and the regions.It is Alborz, maybe your view of this plant will change and you will see it with a patriotic look. This type of love is native to the northern forests, if no one is aware of this issue.


Eel grass

Eelgrass is a species of seagrass found along the shallow waters of the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea, as well as specific areas of the eastern shores of the Atlantic Ocean. This plant lives in waters with lower salinity and is found in brackish waters, such as inland wetlands or pastures and dense beds. The eel is flowering and grass-like, has an underground stem (rhizome) with tubers on it, on which leaves and roots grow and act as a base (anchor) for this plant.

The leaves and rhizomes are floating, and the seeds are white and soft. There is the least concern about this plant, although it is affected by invasive species, sediments and developments along the coast. There is no specific program to protect eel grass in Iran.


Seven coals

Haftkol is native to Iran as well as neighboring countries in Southwest Asia. This perennial shrub has numerous stems that grow from 2.5 m to 4.5 m and form dense, round shrubs. The leaves of this shrub are 5 to 12 cm long and are facing each other. These leaves are characterized by a dark green color on the upper surface and a light green color on the lower surface.

This shrub is between 4 to 5 meters high and its flowers are creamy white. Haft Kool blooms in May, and these flowers gradually turn red and eventually turn into black fruits. Haft-e-Kul shrub grows in alkaline soils and due to its large habitat, it is not considered under any environmental threat.

 Shrimp tulip

The shrimp tulip is a species of tulip from the Susnian family. This plant has a wide range of habitats, from Iran to Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Siberia, and Russia. This type of tulip grows especially in semi-desert and steppe conditions. The flowers of this plant are in attractive and various colors: red, bright red, pink, white or yellow. The lower part of the petals of this plant is dark in color and has a stem 15 to 30 cm long, which can be hairy. Laleh Shornak is not under any significant threat in Iran.


If you want to get acquainted with other types of plant species native to Iran, you can name these plants:

  • Oja

  • Jag plant

  • Aringentium gigantium

  • Autumn golden cup