Scientific achievements of 9 great Iranian scientists
Among the scientists who changed the world with their discoveries, there are many letters from great Iranian scientists. Scientists whose name has remained in the world and is an honor for Iran and Iranians.
If you are a little bit of a history reader and interested in scientific topics, you should answer the question of who are the greatest Iranian scientists and what are their inventions? Many names come to mind because great scientists in Iran have opened their eyes to the world and have gained a global name and official because of their genius. There is no doubt that scientists have greatly contributed to the continuous development of today’s society.
Among the scientists who changed the world with their discoveries, there are many letters from great Iranian scientists. Scientists whose name has remained in the world and is an honor for Iran and Iranians. The 13th of Shahrivar is the day of commemoration of Abu Rihan al-Biruni , who is one of the great Iranian scientists in the sciences of wisdom, astronomy, mathematics, history, geography, etc.
If you are interested in the world of Iranian geniuses and scientists and you do not have detailed information about them, in this case, in addition to getting acquainted with 9 of the greatest Iranian scientists, we will also tell about their inventions.
You know everything called the outside!
Name: Abu Rihan Mohammad Ibn Ahmad Biruni
In what period of life? In the years 352 to 427 AH
Who was Abu Rihan was a prominent Iranian scientist, mathematician, astronomer, calendarist, anthropologist, and historian in the fourth century AH. Abu Rihan’s father, an astronomer at the court of Khwarezmshah, and his mother were also midwives. Abu Rihan’s father was expelled from the court for jealousy and slander, and then settled in a village around Khorezm. It is said that this is the reason for his fame abroad, because they were strangers to the villagers. Biruni is considered one of the greatest Muslim scholars and one of the greatest Persian-speaking scholars of all time.
What were his scientific achievements? Abu Rihan was one of the first to find the specific gravity of many objects and did so with such precision that the difference between his calculated weights and the weights that scientists have made in recent centuries with respect to all their new devices and technologies is negligible. . Abu Rihan also traveled to various cities during his lifetime and measured the latitude and longitude of those cities and then determined the location of each city on a sphere and after years he was able to map those points on a flat map.
At the age of 17, he observed the solar elevation of the meridian, and one of his most important activities and achievements was the calculation of the radius of the earth, which before him, there was not even an estimate! Abu Rihan is said to have authored about 145 books, for a total of 13,000 pages. More than 90 of them are related to astronomy, mathematics and geological mathematics, but unfortunately over the years, only 35 works by Abu Rihan al-Biruni have survived.
It is also known that in the last hours of Abu Rihan’s life, a person came to see him and he asked him the answer to scientific questions in his bed. Surprised by his work, those around him were wary of scientific discussion; In response, Abu Rihan said: “Is it better to know the answer to this question and die or to die unknowingly?” Abu Rihan al-Biruni died at the age of 78.
An experienced Shiite astronomer and philosopher
Name: Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn
Hassan Tusi known as Khawaja Nasir al-Din
In what period of life? In the years 579 to 653 AH
Who was Iranian poet, philosopher, theologian, jurist, astronomer, thinker, mathematician, astronomer, physician and architect known by such titles as “Nasir al-Din”, “Mohaqeq Tusi”, “Master of Man” and “Khajeh”.
What were his scientific achievements? Tusi revived the tradition of Masha’i philosophy, which had declined in Iran after Ibn Sina. Using Ibn Sina’s philosophical views, he based the Shiite theology on rational arguments and compiled a collection of Shiite theological views and views in the book “Abstraction of Belief”. In the field of astronomy, he built the Maragheh Observatory and next to it created a library that contained nearly 40,000 books.
By raising students such as Qutbuddin Shirazi and gathering Iranian scientists, Tusi became the agent of transferring pre-Mongol Iranian civilization and knowledge to the future. This Shiite scientist has taken a new initiative in observing how to use the sundial, which has been very valuable and lasting in the science of astronomy. Khajeh Nasir al-Din was also one of the developers of the science of trigonometry, whose books on trigonometry were translated into French in the 16th century.
Father of Chemistry
Name: Abu Musa Jaber bin Hayyan
In what period of life? In the years 721 to 815 AH
Who was This great Iranian philosopher has been called the “father of chemistry” and in this regard has had a great impact on alchemists and chemists around the world.
What were his scientific achievements? During his lifetime, Jaber ibn Hayyan made great achievements in the fields of alchemy, astronomy, medicine, philosophy and physics. Examples include some of the laboratory instruments he invented, such as the Anbiq and the Qara. Discovery of many chemicals such as nitric acid, citric acid (lemon essence), acid (among the few substances that dissolve gold), acetic acid (vinegar essence) and the introduction of distillation and crystallization processes, both of which are known as They are considered as the main foundations of modern chemistry, it is one of the scientific achievements of Jaber Binhiyan.
Pharmacist and chemist discoverer of alcohol
Name: Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakaria Razi
In what period of life? In the years 243 to304 AH;
Who was An Iranian physician,
philosopher and chemist who became blind at the end of his life.
What were his scientific achievements? He is best known for his discovery of alcohol. Razi was able to obtain this substance from fermented starches and sugars. He was, of course, the first to discover the chemical substance H2So4 sulfur ink, now called “sulfuric acid.”
His other discoveries in chemistry include hydrochloric acid, which is derived from the effect of lime water on neshadr. Razi also made copper acetate or rust by rubbing vinegar with vinegar to wash wounds. He has also written enduring works in the fields of medicine, chemistry and philosophy. Zechariah also wrote works on cosmology, logic, and mathematics.
This scientist has 56 books in the field of medicine, 33 books in physics, 10 books in the field of mathematics, astronomy, etc. According to George Sarten, the father of the history of science, Razi was the greatest physician in Iran and the Islamic world during the Middle Ages.
Innovator in trigonometry and sinuses
Name: Abulofa Mohammad Bozjani
In what period of life? In the years 319 to 376 AH
Who was He was a great Iranian mathematician and astronomer during the golden age of Islam.
What were his scientific achievements? Bozjani improved the calculation methods used by merchants and criticized some incorrect methods. He proposed methods for making two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes, adapted from Euclid and Archimedes, and added good initiatives in this area.Before Buzjani, in spherical trigonometry, the only means of solving triangles was Menelaus’ theorem of perfect quadrilaterals, which in Islamic books was called the rule of six values. Buzjani made it easier to solve spherical trigonometry tools by enriching them. In addition, one of the first proofs of the general theorem of sines to solve non-orthogonal triangles was invented by Buzjani.
He solved the unsolvable problems of classical geometry and did research on the principles of geometric drawings, which to date no one has been able to offer another solution to solve those problems. In addition, he was the first to conduct a detailed study of the moon and come up with interesting results that have been proven to be true these days.
Creator of 4 main mathematical operations
Name: Ghiasuddin Jamshid Kashani
In what period of life? In the years 758 to 808 AH
Who was He was the son of a Kashani doctor
named Massoud. He is considered the most
brilliant accountant and the last prominent
mathematician of the Islamic period and one of the greatest figures in the history of Iran.
What were his scientific achievements? In one of his many scientific activities, he completed and corrected the old methods of performing the four main operations of arithmetic and invented new and simpler methods for them. In fact, Kashani should be considered the inventor of the current methods of performing the four main operations of arithmetic (especially multiplication and division). His valuable book, Al-Muftah al-Hesab, is a textbook on basic mathematics, and it is considered to be the best of all medieval mathematical works in terms of abundance, variety of materials, and psychological expression.
Innovator in Algebra and Astronomy
Name: Mohammad Ibn Musa Kharazmi
In what period of life? In the years 159 to 229 AH
Who was This famous Iranian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, geographer and historian lived during the Abbasid period.
What were his scientific achievements? Kharazmi’s scientific reputation is due to the work he has done in mathematics, especially in the field of algebra, so that he has been called the “father of algebra”. In the introduction to his book, the famous historian George Sarten calls the ninth century the “Age of Kharazmi.”
His greatest skill was in solving linear and quadratic equations. One of his books changed the numerical system in Europe from Roman numerals to Indo-Arabic numerals, something that is still prevalent in Europe and elsewhere. During the reign of Mamun Abbasi, he was responsible for preparing an atlas of maps of heaven and earth. Kharazmi Festival is the name of a scientific festival in Iran that has been named in honor of this great scientist in order to honor the status of innovative scholars and technologists.
Sheikh Al-Rais, the pride of Iranian medicine
Name: Abu Ali Hussein Ibn Abda … Ibn
Hassan Ibn Ali Ibn Sina known as Abu Ali Sina
In what period of life? In the years 359 to 416 AH
Who was Abu Ali Sina was born on the first of September 359 in the city of Bukhara during the Samanid period. He had an extraordinary memory and intelligence, so that at the age of 14 he surpassed his teacher. Abu Ali Sina is a famous Iranian physician whose tomb is located in the city of Hamadan and the first day of September has been named “Doctor’s Day” in his honor.
What were his scientific achievements? He has written 450 books in various fields, many of them on medicine and philosophy. He is the author of the book Shafa, which is a comprehensive scientific and philosophical encyclopedia, and Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tib is one of the most famous works in the history of medicine. Works that have made him famous and distinguished all over the world and are the founder of many medical sciences and have left many inventions and discoveries or established the stages of their discovery.
Creator of the solar calendar
Name: Ghiasuddin Abolfath Omar bin Ibrahim Khayyam Neyshabouri known as Khayyam
In what period of life? In the years 427 to 510 AH
Who was Khayyam is an Iranian philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and quatrain in the Seljuk period. Although Khayyam’s scientific base is superior to his literary position, his fame is mostly due to his quatrains, which are world famous.
What were his scientific achievements? One of his most prominent works can be considered as arranging and supervising the calculations of the Iranian calendar during the ministry of Khajeh Nizam-ol-Molk, which was during the reign of the Seljuk queen; Khayyam’s calculations in this regard are still valid and are far more accurate than the Gregorian calendar.
He was a professor of mathematics, astronomy, literary, religious and historical sciences. Khayyam’s role in solving quadratic equations and his studies of the fifth principle of Euclid have recorded his name as a prominent mathematician in the history of science. One of his most important works was the presentation of a theory about the equivalent relations with Euclid’s theory, which surprised the scientists of that time.
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